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Full text of "An authentic narrative of the shipwreck and sufferings of Mrs. Eliza Bradley, : the wife of Capt. James Bradley of Liverpool, commander of the ship Sally which was wrecked on the coast of Barbary, in June 1818 ..."

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The  Arabs  conveying  Mrs.  Bradley  into  CapUvily. 



Of  THE 




fHB   WIFE  or  Gapt.  James   Bradlrt^   of  LivEnpooLy 
Commander  of  tHE  Ship  Sallt^  which  was  wftMCK* 

ED   ON    fHE  COAST  OF   BARBARTy    IN  JUNB     1818. 

The  Crew   and  Passengers  of  the  above  Ship   fell  in« 
to    the    hands  of  the  Arabs,  a  few  days  after  their 
Shipwreck,  among  whom  unfortunately  was  Mrs. 
Bhadlet,  who,  after  enduring  incredible  hard- 
ships during    six   months  captivity  (five  of 
which  she  was  scperatcd  from  her  hu&band 
and  every  other  civilized  being)  she  was 
fortunately  redeemed  out  of  the  hands 
of  the  unmerciful  barbarians,  by  Mr. 
VViLLSHiaE,  the    British  Consul, 
resident  at  Mogadore. 


go*  The  narrative  of  the  Captivity  and  Sufferings  of 
the  unfortunate  Mrs.  Bradlby,  is  allowed  by  all  those 
who  have  perused  it  to  be  the  most  affecting  that  ever 
appeared  in  print— yet,  by  the  blessings  of  God,  this 
amiable  woman  endured  deprivation  and  hardship  with 
incredible  fortitude— in  a  barbarous  land»  skk  became 
a  Convert  to  the  RELtGION  of  a  Blessed  Redeemer. 

BOSTON-'Piinlcd  by  James  Walden— 1820. 

TO  THE  Am«iigan  Edition. 

AS  the  present  ajc  U  in  era  of  adventure,  and 
the  field  extensive  on  which  enterprise  may  take  he^r 
ran^f  in  consequence  of  the  vtst  modern  improve- 
ments in  the  arts  and  sciences,  it  is  tot  surprizing 
that  the  press  should  bring  to  light  numerous  works 
of  all  descripiions.  The  facility  of  intercourse  be- 
tween the  various  parts  of  the  world,  and  the  far 
and  wide  extensive  stale  oi  commerce,  iiavc  given 
origin  to  many  narratives  of  voyages  and  irayels  as 
well  as  accounts  of  •hipwrecks,  and  the  various  dis- 
asters attendant  on  them.  In  works  of  this  nature 
we  read  of  numerous  hair-breadth  escapes,  and  as- 
tonishing interpositions  of  Divine  Providence,  on 
behalf  of  the  concerned — together  wi^h  incidents 
ol  so  extraordinary  a  nature,  that  the  mind  is  wrapt 
in  astonishment — and  as  we  peruse  we   are   lost  in  -li^* 

wonder  and  amazement. 

The  following  circumstanlirtl  account  of  sufferings 
almost  beyond  human  endurance,  is  a  little  work  of 
real  merit.  The  simplicity  of  the  langu*ge—ihc 
spirit  of  piety  it  breathes — and  the  morals  it  incul- 


catcs,  cannot  fail  to  cause  it  to  be  read  with  delight 
and  edification  by  all  those  whose  thoughts  tend  to 
serious  reflection*  If  patience  under  affliciion  con- 
stitutes one  of  the  cardinal  virtues,  we  there  find  it 
exemplified  in  our  christian  heroine,  throughout  the 
whole  of  her  thorny  peregrination.  The  occurrence 
of  her  shipwreck,  captivity  and  deliverance,  afford 
convincing  proof  of  the  omnipresence  of  the  All- 
seeing  Eye.  We  recommend  its  perusal  to  the  at- 
tention of  our  young  females  in  a  particular  man- 
ner, as  Mrs.  Bradley  sets  a  shining  example  to  hep 
9^yL  m  her  struggles  against  the  calamities  of  life^ 
under  circumstances  the  most  uncomfortable. 

This  publication  has  passed  through  a  number  of 
editions  in  London-  Ii  was  altered  but  very  little 
from  the  original  manuscript  of  Mrs,  B.  as  the 
English  publisher  declares.— We  therefore  think  it 
a  work  highly  worthy  of  being  patronized  in  this 
country,  from  the  conciseness  and  simplicity  of  the 
style,  and  the  religious  fervor  which  it  breathes.— 
The  publishers  of  the  European  edition,  from  which 
this  is  copied  being  acquainted  with  the  family  of 
the  writer  of  this  narrative,  and  the  circumstances 
©f  the  unfortunate  voyage  upon  which  it  was  found- 
cdj  clearly  demonstrates  the  truth  of  the  facts  con- 
tained in  the  following  pages. 

Without  any  further  remarks,  we  now  submit  the 
following  interesting  memoirs  to  the  attention  of  the 
American  public. 




I  WAS  born  in  Liverpool  (Eng.)  of  creditable 
parents  in  the  year  1783, — in  the  year  1802,  at  the 
age  of  19,  1  vas  married  to  Capt.  Xames  Bradley^ 
my  present  husband.  Who,  having  been  bred  to 
the  seas,  was  possessed  of  no  other  means  of  sup^ 
port,  and  knew  of  no  other  way  to  obtain  a  liveli- 
hood ;  hence,  my  endeavors,  after  our  marriage,  to 
induce  him  to  pursue  some  other  occupation,  at- 
tended with  less  dangers,  proved  unfortunately  in- 
effectual. In  May,  1818,  my  husband  was  appoint- 
ed to  the  command  of  the  ship  Sally,  bound  from 
Liverpool  to  Teneriffe  :  and  I  having  expressed  a 
wish  to  accompany  him  on  a  former  voyage,  to  Ma- 
deira, he  insisted  on  my  accompanying  him  on  this, 

The  ship  was  freighted  with  all  pos»ibtc  dispilch, 
and  on  the  morning  of  the  12th  of  May,  wc  embark- 
ed, thirty. two  in  number,  comprising  the  ship's  crew 
and  passengers,  of  which  1  was  the  only  female.— 
Nothing  worthy  of  record  traiispircd  on  our  voyage, 
yntil  nearly  five  weeks  from  the  day  of  o*ir  de- 
parture, when  we  experienced  a  tremrndouft  storm, 
which  continued  to  rage  with  unabatrd  fury  for  »ix 
days,  and  to  add  to  our  distress,  it  was  discovered 
that  the  ship,  from  the  violent  working;  of  the  sea, 
had  sprung  a  leak  in  several  places  ;  both  pumps 
were  kept  continually  going,  and  were  found  aimoet 
insufficient  to  free  the  ship  of  water.  The  whole 
crew  began  now  to  turn  their  eyes  upon  my  husband) 
who  advised  the  immediate  lightening  of  the  skip,  as 
tlic  only  measure  ihat  could  be  adopted  to  preserve 
•ur  lives—the  hatches  v/ere  torn  up,  and  the  ship 
discharged  cf  the  most  weighty  part  of  her  cargo, 
but  the  Etorni  continued  to  ragc>  and  the  leaks  in- 
creasing, it  was  soon  concluded  by  ihe  officers  ut- 
terly impossible  to  save  i^liher  the  ship  or  their  c.'- 
fecta  ;  the  preservation  -f  even  their  lives  becoming 
every  moment  more  difficult  to  ihem>  they  now 
began  to  apply  every  thought  and  deed  to  that  con- 
sideration. Since  the  commencement  of  the  furious 
storm,  they  had  not  been  enabled  to  keep  any  reckon- 
ing, and  had  been  driven  many  leagues  out  ©f  their 

Such  was  our   perilous  situation  ficm  the  ifthto 
;he  2iih  Jyne,  in  tlie  evening  of  which  the  storr.) 

began  t«  abate — the  morning  ensuing,  although  tiie 
sea  had  become  much  more  calm,  there  was  so  thick 
a  fog,  that  the  ship't  crew  found   it   impossible  to 
discern  an  object  three  rods  a-head  of  them,    and  to 
add  to  our  consternation,  by  the  colour  of  the  water 
it  nas  discovered  that  we  were  on   soundings,    while 
the  breakers  were  distinctly  heard  at  the  leeward— 
the  storm  had  rendered  the  ship  unmanageable,  and 
flhe  was  considered   so  completely  a  wreck,  that  the 
officers  thought  it  their  wisest  plan  to  put  her  before 
the  wind,  until  they  could  discover  the  land,  (which 
they    imagined    not    far  off)    and  then  attempt  the 
jraining  the  shore  with  the   boats — but,  the  day  clos- 
ed without    any  discovery  of  land  being  made,  al- 
^ough  the  roar  of  the  surf  indicated  that  it  could  not 
ke  far  distant.     The  ship's  crew,  nearly  worn    down 
vrith    fatigue,  as  many  of  them  as  could  be  spared 
off  deck  now  sought  a  little  necessary  repose  below  : 
but,   about   midnight,  they  were  suddenly  aroused 
from  their  slumbers   by  the    violent  striking  of  the 
ship  against  a  chain  of  rocks,  and  with  so  much  vio- 
lence as    to  open    her  stern  i  Even  the   little  hope 
that  the  ship's  crew  had  till  then  preserved,    seemed 
to  fail  them  at  once— on  the  instant,  the  ship  rcsounil- 
cd  with  their  lamentable  exclamaiions,  imploring  the 
mercy   of   their  Creator  !  indeed   to  form  an  ade- 
quate idea  of  our   distress,  one  must    have  been    a 
^vitnc88  of  it.     The  reader  cannot  suppose  but  tkai 
I  too  in   a   moment  like  this,  must  have  shared  the 
terrors  of  the  crew  ;  but   my  fortitude,  by  the  ble;- 

sings  of  Heaven,  was  much  more  probable  than  what 
would  have  been  exhibited  by  maiiy  females  in  my 
situation — the  extremity  of  the  n/i> fortune,  vfith  the 
certainty  of  its  being  inevitable,  s  rved  to  supply  me 
■with  a  sort  of  seeming  firmness.  My  poor  husband, 
in  his  endeavors  to  reconcile  me  to  my  fate,  seemed 
to  forget  his  o^Tn  perilous  situation  ;  indeed  his  vis- 
ible steadiness  and  resolution  happily  imposed  so 
far  upon  the  whole  crew,  that  it  inspired  them,  even 
in  the  instant  of  destruction,  with  such  confidence  in 
him,  that  rendered  them  attentive  and  obedient  to  his 

Never  could  a  night  be  passed  in  more  wretch- 
edness!  the  storm  again  gathered,  and  while  the 
rain  fell  in  torrents,  the  waves  rising  every  instant, 
covered  our  bark,  and  rolled  their  mountains  over 
our  heads — in  such  a  situation,  stretched  along  on 
the  outside  of  the  hulk,  fastening  ourselves  to  every 
thing  we  could  lay  hold  of,  drenched  through  with 
pain,  spent  with  the  constant  efforts  we  were  obliged 
to  exert  against  the  fury  of  the  waves,  which  en- 
deavored to  wash  us  off  from  our  hold,  we  at  length 
perceived  the  morning's  dawn,  only  to  afford  us  a 
clearer  view  of  the  dangers  we  had  passed,  and 
those  v?e  had  yet  to  encounter. 

This  prospect  of  our  situation  appeared  still  more 
tremendous  ;  we  perceived  indeed,  that  we  were 
not  far  from  land,  but  we  saw  that  it  was  impossible 
for  us  to  reach  it.  The  raging  of  the  sea  would  have 
daunted  the  stoutest  and  most  expert  swimmer ;   for 

the  waves  rolled  with  such  fury,  that  whoever  at- 
tempted to  g«in  the  shore,  must  have  run  the  risk 
of  being  launched  back  into  the  main  ocean  or  dash- 
ed to  pieces  against  the  ship  or  shore.  At  this  sight 
and  reflecuon  the  whole  crew  was  seized  with  the 
extremity  of  despair  :  their  groans  and  exclamations 
redoubled,  and  were  repeated  with  such  strength 
and  ferrency,  that  they  were  to  be  heard  amidst  the 
raging  of  the  winds,  the  roaring  of  the  thunder,  and 
the  dashing  of  the  waves,  which,  all  joined  together, 
augmented  the  horror  of  the  sound. 

The  day  was  once  more  near  closing,  we  reflect- 
ed with  terror  on  ihc  last  night,  and  trembled  be- 
forehand at  that  which  was  to  come — there  was  in- 
deed a  small  boat  attached  to  the  ship,  but  in  no  con- 
dition to  weather  even  the  short  passage  that  ap- 
peared to  be  between  us  and  the  land.  We  passed 
the  night  with  feelings  more  horrible,  if  possible, 
than  on  ihs  former  ;  the  exhausted  state  we  had  been 
reiucfd  to,  by  our  past  labor,  left  us  hardly  power 
to  sustain  the  present. 

The  iuccccding  morning  our  spirits  were  a  little 
revived  by  beholding  the  sun  arise,  a  sight  all  abso. 
lutely  despaired  of,  when  we  saw  it  setting,  and 
when  death,  by  putting  an  end  to  our  calamities, 
would  certainly  be  a  blessing  ;  but  the  care  of  life, 
is  the  strongest  passion  in  the  human  breast;  it  con-* 
tinues  with  us  to  the  last  moment  of  existence  ;  the 
miseries  one  feels  may  weaken,  perhaps,  but  rarely 
Tilinguish  it.     Our  first  emotion,  on   findiug    otir- 

— lo- 
st! vea  sliil  clineing  fast  to  the  feisel,  was  to  oWtr 
up  our  ibinksgivings  to  Heaven,  for  having  still  prer 
lerved  us  alivey  even  in  such  a  deplorable  situation, 
10  raise  up  our  suppliant  hands  in  petition  to  Provi- 
dence, to  complete  its  miracle,  bj  af?ording  us  some 
unforeseen  means  of  escaping  to  the  shore— there 
never  was  sure  a  more  fervent  prayer.  Heaven  at 
length,  seemed  to  look  down  with  compassion  on  our 
miseries  and  danger^the  wind  began  to  abate,  and 
the  various  agitation  of  the  sea  to  subside  to  that  de- 
gree, that  the  officers  conceived  it  possible  for  u* 
to  reach  the  shore  in  the  ship's  boat. 

The  boat  was  but  small,  it  could  not  contain  a- 
bove  a  third  part  of  our  number  ;  wt  could  not  at- 
tempt to  embark  all  at  once  without  sinking  it  ;  ev- 
*:r3r  one  was  sensible  of  the  difficulty,  but  no  one 
would  consent  tc  wait  for  a  second  passage ;  thte 
fear  of  some  accident  happening  to  prevent  a  return* 
and  the  terror  of  lying  another  night  exposed  on  the 
hulk,  made  every  one  obstinate  for  being  taken  in  the 
first— it  was  however  unanimously  agreed  by  all, 
that  my  husband  and  myself  should  be  ameng  the 
number  who  should  go  first  into  the  boat.  The  sea 
having  now  almost  become  a  calm,  the  boat  con- 
taining as  many  at  it  was  thought  prudent  to  take 
on  board,  left  the  wreck,  and  in  less  than  half  an 
hour  we  reached  the  ihore>  and  were  all  safely  land- 
ed ;  and  were  soon  after  joined  by  the  remainder 
«^f  the   ship's  crew,  who  were  as  ftrtunatt  as  our- 

asjvcs  in  retching  the  shore,  tnd    with  as  lUtlc   iik"- 


Being  now  placed  on  dry  land,  we  toon  perceWcd 
tbal  we  had  new  difficulties  to  encounter  ;  higli 
craggy  rocks  nearly  perpendicular,  and  of  more  thao 
two  hundred  feet  in  height,  lined  the  shore  as  far  as 
the  sight  could  extend.  The  first  care  •f  the 
crew  was  to  seek  among  the  articles  floated  ashore 
from  the  wreck,  for  planks  and  pieces  of  wood,  to 
erect  a  covering  for  the  night  ;  and  they  succeeded 
beyond  their  hopes — the  right  was  extremely  bois- 
terous, and  nothing  beneath  us  but  sharp  rocks  on 
which  to  extend  our  wearied  limbs,  we  obtained 
but  Ihtle  repose.  Early  the  ensuing  morning  it  was 
to  onr  sorrow  discovered  that  but  very  little  of  lh« 
wreck  was  remaining,  and  those  of  the  crew  who 
were  best  able  to  walk,  went  to  reconnoitre  the  shorcj 
and  to  see  whether  the  sea  had  brought  any  frag- 
ments of  the  wreck  ;  they  were  00  fortunate  as  to 
tind  a  barrel  of  f^our,  and  a  keg  of  salt  pork«— soon 
after  they  had  secured  these,  the  tide  arose  and  pus 
an  end  to  their  labor. 

Captain  Bradley  now  called  together  the  ship's 
crew,  and  having  divided  the  provision  among  them, 
ciquired  of  them  if  they  consented  to  his  continuing 
in  the  command  ;  to  which  they  unanimously 
agreed — be  then  informed  them,  that  from  the  best 
calculatious  he  could  make,  he  had  reason  to  believe 
that  we  were  on  the  Barbary  coast,  and  as  we  had 
i.o  \vc!»pon5  of  defence,  much  was  to  be  apprelicnd- 

—  12— 

edlr^m  the  ferocity  of  the  natives,  if  wc  should  be 
so  unfortunate  as  to  be  discovered  by  tiiem.  The 
coast  appeared  to  be  formed  of  perpendicular  rocks 
to  a  great  height,  and  no  way  could  be  discovered 
by  which  we  might  mount  to  the  top  of  the  preci- 
pices, so  steep  was  the  ascent.  Having  agreed  to 
keep  together,  we  proceeded  along  the  sea  side,  in 
hopes  to  find  some  place  of  more  easy  ascent,  by 
which  we  might  gain  the  surface  of  land  above  us, 
where  we  were  in  hopes  of  discovering  t  spring  of 
water  with  which  to  allay  our  thirst — after  travelling 
many  miles,  we  at  length  found  the  sought  for  paa- 
sjige,  up  a  precipice,  which  resembled  a  flight  of 
stairs,  and  seemed  more  the  production  of  art  than 
of  nature.  We  soon  gained  the-  summit  of  the 
cliffs  ;  but  instead  of  springs  of  water,  or  groves  to 
shelter  us  from  the  rays  of  the  scorching  sun,  what 
was  our  surprise,  to  see  nothing  before  us,  but  a 
barren  sandy  plain,  extending  as  far  as.  the  eye  could 

The  day  was  now  drawing  to  a  close,  and  des- 
pairing of  meeting  with  relief,  1  threw  myself  upon 
the  sand,  and  after  wishing  for  death  a  thousand 
times,  1  resolved  to  await  it  on  the  spot  where  1  lay*. 
Why  should  I  go  further  to  seek  it,  amidst  new 
miseries  I  I  was  indeed  so  determined  to  die,  that  I 
awaited  the  moment  with  impatience  as  the  termina- 
tion of  my  misery.  Amid  these  melancholly  re- 
flections, sleep  at  length  overpowered  me.  My 
poor  husband  did. every  thing  in  his  power    to  al!c-. 


\S»tc  my  sufferings  ;  he  represented  to  me  the  pre- 
bability  of  our  meeting  with  friendly  aid,  by  the 
means  of  which  we  might  be  conducted  to  some 
commercial  port,  at  which  we  might  probably  obtain 
a  passage  for  Europe.  We  passed  the  night  at  thii 
place,  half  buried  in  the  sand.  At  the  ^awn  of  day 
we  again  put  forward,  trayelling  in  a  southeast  di- 
rection. The  cravings  of  hunger  and  thirst,  be- 
came now  more  pressing  than  ever,  and  we  founi 
nothing  to  appease  them— before  the  close  of  the 
day  we  were,  however,  cheered  by  the  account  of 
one  of  the  sailors  who  had  been  dispatched  a-head 
on  the  look  out,  who  informed  us  that  he  had  trav- 
ersed the  rocky  borders  of  the  shore,  until  he  had 
discovered  an  extensive  flat  almost  covered  with 
mussels.  We  hastened  to  the  spot,  where  we  pasi- 
ed  the  night,  and  the  next  morning  found  ourselves 
so  much  strengthened,  that  we  resolved  to  remain 
there  the  whole  day,  and  the  following  night. 

At  the  dawn  of  day,  we  took  our  departure,  and 
before  the  setting  of  the  sun,  it  was  conjectured  that 
we  had  travelled  nearly  thirty  miles ;  but,  without 
any  prospect  of  relief— indeed  every  hour  now 
seemed  to  throw  a  deeper  gloom  over  our  fate. 
Having  in  vain  sought  for  a  resting  place,  we  were 
this  night  obliged  to  repose  on  the  sands.  This 
was  indeed  a  crisis  of  calamity— the  mif  ery  we  un- 
derwent was  too  shocking  to  relate.  Having  ex- 
isted for  three  days  without  water,  our  thirst  was 

—  14-r. 

-l©o  great  to  be  any  longer  endured.  Early  the  cni- 
suing  morning  we  resumed  our  journey,  and  as  the 
sandy  desert  was  found  to  produce  noihing  but  a 
little  wild  sorril,  it  was  thought  sdviseablc  again  to 
direct  our  course  along  the  sea  shore,  in  hopes  of 
finding   some  small  shell- fish   that   might  afford  us 

\     some  refreshment^  although  but  paorly  calculated  to 
\  allay  our  thirsts. 

j/^  .  Believing  from  our  present  feelings  that  we  could 
^  not  possibly  survive  a  day  longer  without  drink,  and 
no  signs  of  finding  any  appearing,  the  last  ray  of 
luope  was  on  the  eve  of  fading  away,  when,  about 
jnid-day,  the  second  mate,  (who  had  been  sent  for- 
vjard  to  make  discoveries)  returned  to  us  with  the 
joyful  tidings  that  he  had  found  a  pool  of  brackish 
"water  I  a  revelation  from  heaven  could  not  have 
cheered  us  more  I  condueted  by  the  mate,  we  hast- 
ened to  the  pool,  which  contamed  about  half  a  bar- 
rel of  stagnated  water  ;  but  impure  as  it  was,  it  serv.. 
ed  as  a  very  seasonable  relief  to  us,  for  without 
something  to  allay  my  thirst,  I  am  sure  I  should  not 
have  survived  the  night.  Having  at  length  succeed- 
ed in  reaching  the  sea  shore,  we  were  miserably  dis- 
appointed by  the  state  of  tke  tides,  which  prevented 
our  obtaining  any  kind  of  shell  fish. 

The  next  day  brought  no  alleviation  of  our  mis- 
cries — necessity  impelled  us  to  proceed,  though 
hope  scarcely  darted  a  ray  through  the  gloom  of  our 
prospects.  My  dear  husband  seeming  to  forget  his 
own  miseries,  did  every  thing  in  his  power  to  alle* 


viate  mine—from  the  time  of  our  shipwreck,  he  was 
never  heard  once  to  murmur  :  but  by  precept  a^ 
example!  endeavored  to  keep  up  the  spirits  ofiho^e 
v?ho  had  as  little  cause  to  murmur  as  himself— for 
my  own  part,  the  miswies  that  1  had  endured  since 
that  melancholly  event,  had  afforded  me  but  little 
leisure  to  reflect  upon  the  situation  of  any  one  but 
myself.  At  the  fall  of  the  tide,  we  were  so  fortunate 
as  to  find  a  few  mussels,  and  then  following  the 
windini^s  of  the  coast,  we  pursued  our  journey  for 
three  or  four  days,  over  sharp  craggy  rocks,  where 
perhaps  no  human  being  ever  trod  before)  uncertain 
which  way  to  proceed,  incommoded  by  tlxi  heat,  and 
exhausted  by  the  fatigues  of  our  march.  In  thi'i 
eur  most  deplorable  situation,  however,  and  at  the 
very  instant  that  wc  were  all  nearly  famished  with 
hunger,  Heaven  was  pleased  to  send  us  some  relief 
when  we  least  expected  it — some  of  the  crew  who 
led  the  way,  had  the  good  fortune  to  discovers 
dead  &eai  on  the  beach — a  knife  bein^  in  possession 
of  one  of  them,  they  cut  up  their  prey,  dressed  par^ 
of  the  flesh  on  the  spot,  and  carried  the  rest  with 

As  we  were  now  in  possession  of  provision,  and 
could  not  expect  to  find  water  by  traversing  the  sea 
shore,  it  was  thought  most  advisable  once  more  to 
bend  our  course  backward,  m  search  of  it  amon^ 
th«  barren  sands  ;  for  from  our  feelings  we  judged 
that  we  could  not  possibly  survive  a  day  longer  with- 
out  drink  ;    our  tongues   were   nearly   as   dry    jis 

iparcbed  leather.  Fear  of  meeting  with  the  oativ^s 
(from  whom  they  expected  no  mercy)  appeared  to 
%t  the  prerailing  principle  of  the  actions  of  most  6f 
the  crew  which  must  have  been  very  powerful  in 
them)  when  it  was  superior  to  the  prevailing  calls  of 
hunger  ihd  thirst.  As  we  traversed  the  sandy  de- 
swt,  we  searched  in  rain  for  some  sorts  of  nouriah- 
wient  ;  there  were  neither  roots  nor  vegetables  fit 
for  eating  to  be  found.  Our  thirst  increased  every 
moment,  but  the  hope  of  being  able  to  assuage  it, 
sustained  us  every  step,  and  enabled  us  to  travel  %n 
till  the  afternoon.  We  cast  our  eyes  around,  but 
cculd  see  nothing  to  rest  our  wearied  sight  upon, 
but  a  boundless  end  barren  waste,  extending  on  all 
sides.  Such  an  horrid  prospect  threw  us  into  the 
most  shocking  state  of  despair;  our  exhausted 
spirits  died  within  us;  we  no  longer  thought  of  con- 
tinuing our  hopeless  and  uncertain  routCj  in  which 
we  could  not  possibly  foresee  any  end  to  our  wants 
and  miseries,  except  what  we  might  have  received 
upon  the  spot  where  we  then  laid  ourselves  down, 
from  death  alone— not  uniii  this  moment  did  my 
fortitude  forsake  me— the  weight  of  my  misfortunes 
had  uow  become  too  heavy  for  my  strength,  or  ra. 
ther  weakness,  to  support— I  felt  as  if  the  earth  I 
pressed  had  been  heaped  upon  me  !  I  exhorted  my 
husband  to  leave  me  here,  and  to  avail  himself  of 
the  powers  that  he  had  yet  remaining,  to  hasten  for- 
ward to  some  inhabited  part  of  the  country,  from 
whence  he  might  have  an  opportunity  of  once  more 

— ir— 

returning  to  his  native  land.  My  dear  husband 
could  only  answer  with  tears  and  moans,  while  1 
continued  to  persuade  him  to  our  seperation^  urging 
the  absolute  necessity  of  it,  in  Tain.  "  No,  my  dear 
wife  (said  he)  I  will  never  consent  to  abandon  yoti» 
while  life  remains — with  the  Almighty  nothing  is 
impossible — if  we  put  our  trust  in  Hina,  he  may 
prove  compassionate  towards  us  and  give  us  strength 
to  pursue  our  journey,  and  support  us  in  our  trials 
—if  it  is  His  will  that  we  should  perish  in  a  foreign 
land,  far  distant  from  kmdred^and  friends,  the  will  of 
God  must  be  done,  and  we  ought  not  to  muf  mur.— 
He  certainly  orders  every  thing  in  the  best  possible 
manner,  and  he  who  takes  cave  of  the  ravens,  will 
not  forsake  his  own  children  in  the  hour  of  afilic- 
tion."  My  husband  now  kneeled  down  by  my  side, 
and  offered  up  a  petition  for  our  speedy  relief;  in 
which  ho  was  joined  by  the  whole  crew.  After  our 
pious  devotions  were  over,  it  was  agreed  by  the  com* 
pany  that  apart  of  their  number  should  rewain  with 
me,  and  the  remainder  (who  were  least  fatigued), 
should  go  in  search  of  water. 

The  sun  was  now  near  setting,  and  I  fill  into  a 
state  of  torpiid  insensibility,  without  motion,  and  al- 
most deprived  of  all  reflection,  like  a  person  between 
sleeping  and  waking;  1  felt  no  pain,  but  a  certain 
Hatlessness  and  uncomfortable  sensation  affected  my 
whole  body. 

About  two  hours  after  the  party  had  departed 
in   search  of  water,  they  returned  nearly    out    of 

>fe5th,  and  apparently  much  affrighted,  and  inform- 
j»d  us  that  they  had  been  pursued  by  a  party  of  the 
natives  (sonae  of  whom  wcr«  mounted  on  camels) 
and  that  they  were  then  but  a  short  distance  frosi» 
us  J  they  had  scarcely  finished  their  story,  when  a 
dreadful  yell  announced  the  arrival  of  their  pursu- 
ers 1  Their  appearance  indeed  was  frightful,  being 
nearly  naked,  and  armed  yrith  muskets^  spears  and': 

Our  company  having  no  weapons  with  which  to- 
defend  themselves,  thcv  approached  and  prQstrate4 
themselves  at  the  feet  of  the  Arabs  (for  such  they 
proved  to  he)  as  a  token  of  submission.  This  they ' 
did  not  however  seem  to  regard,  but  seising  us  with 
all  the  ferocity  of  cannibals,  they  in  an  instant fttrip- 
ped  us  almost  naked.  For  my  own  part,  such  had 
been  my  sufferings,  that  1  no  longer  felt  any  fear 
of  death — such  was  my  thirst  at  this  moment,  that  1 
think  I  should  have  been  willing  to  have  exchanged 
TBy  life  fox  a  draught  of  fresh  water. 

As  soon  as  the  Arabs  finished  stripping  us,  a  warm 
contest  arose  among  themselves,  each  claiming  us 
individually  as  his  proporty.  This  contest  lasted 
for  more  than  an  hour,  nor  could  1  compare  the 
combatants  to  any  thing  but  hungry  wolves  contend- 
ing for  their  preyJ— scmetimcs  we  were  laid  hold  of 
by  a  dozen  of  them  at  once,  attempting  to  drag  us 
off  in  different  directions—they  aimed  deadly  blows 
5it  each  other  with  their  scimeiers,  within  two  feet. 
«>J  my  hcM>  aod  inflicted   wounds   wUich  laid  ihe 

SesK  of  their  bodies  open  *m  the  bone  ?  Bccrtmir/^g 
wearjr  of  the  bloody  contest  an  crtd  Arab  (who  piob* 
ably  was  a  chief)  at  length  ccmni'drdcU  ihtm  to  de- 
sist, and  promisirifaf  them,  as  I  have  sidcc  learned, 
that  vffc  should  be  posscsstd  by  those  only  wliu  had 
the  besi  claim  lo  us-— this  poia  toeing  at  Ifugth 
amicobiy  teitlcd  among  therm,  and  each  Arab  having 
taken  poasfbsion  of  vrliat  had  been  apportio.jcd  to 
hina  as  his  rightful  property,  my  husband  by  signs 
(exhibiting  his  mouih  as  parched  and  dry  as  the  sand 
undei  foot)  gave  them  to  unciersiand  that  our  thir»t 
was  too  great  to  be  any  longer  endured,  and  that' 
•if  we  were  not  provided  with  something  immediate- 
ly to  allay  it,  they  must  expect  soon  to  be  in  posse«* 
sion  of  nothing  but  our  dead  carcasses  ! 

As  the  Arabs  appeared  now  to  esteem  us  (poof 
."iiiscrabie  objects]  of  too  much  value  to  suffer  us  t© 
perish  for  any  thing  within  their  power  to  afforii 
us,  they  drove  up  their  camsls  and  took  from  the 
back  of  one  of  ti;em  a  goat  skin,  sewed  up  like  a 
■wallet,  and  containing  about  four  gallons  of  brack- 
ish slimy  water,  which  they  poured  into  a  callabash 
and  gave  us  to  drink.  Bad  as  this  water  was,  and 
nauicous  to  the  smell,  i  think  we  could  have  drank 
half  a  gallon  each  ;  but  having  finished  the  con- 
tents of  the  skin,  they  refused  us  any  more  ;  but 
pouuing  tothceast^  gave  us  to  understand  that  al- 
though water  was  with  them  a  precious  article, 
they  iu  a  few  days  should   arrive  at  a  place  where 

ilicy  should  obtain  a  plentiful  supply,  and  we  fnighl 
drink  our  fill. 

The  Arabs  now  began  to  make  prcparataon  to 
depart— -the  one  by  whom  I  was  claimed,  and  who  I 
»hall  hereafter  distinguish  by  the  title  of  Masteb, 
was  in  ray  view  more  savage  and  frightful  in  his  ap- 
pearance, than  ar»y  one  of  the  rest.  He  was  about 
six  feet  in  height,  of  a  tawny  complexion,  and  haJ 
no  other  clothing  than  a  piece  of  woolen  cloth 
wrapped  round  his  body,  and  which  extended  from 
below  his  breast  to  his  knees  ;  his  hair  was  stout 
and  bushy,  and  stuck  up  in  every  direction  like  brus- 
lles  upon  the  b?xk  of  a  hog  ;  his  eyes  were  small 
but  were  red  and  fiery,  resembling  those  of  a  ser- 
pent when  irritated  ;  and  to  add  to  his  horrid  ap- 
pearance, his  beard  (which  was  of  a  jet  black  and 
cuily)  was  of  more  than  afoot  in  length  !~such  ! 
assure  the  reader  is  a  true  description  of  the  mon- 
ster, in  human  sfaape,  by  whom  1  was  doomed  to  be 
held  in  servitude,  and  for  what  length  of  time,  Hea- 
ven then  only  knew  ! 

The  draught  of  water  with "  which  I  had  been 
supplied,  having  revived  me  beyond  all  expectation, 
my  master  compelling  bis  camel  to  knecJ,  placed 
tne  OQ  his  back.  My  situation  was  not  so  uncom- 
fortable as  might  be  imagined,  as  they  have  sad- 
dlci  constructed  to  suit  the  backs  of  these  animals, 
and  on  which  a  person  may  ride  with  tolerable  case 
•-•the  saddle  is  placed  on  the  camel's  back  before 
the  hump,  and  secured  by  a  rope   iindcr  his  belly. 

—2  2  — 

Thus  prepared,  we  set  out,  none  of  the  captives 
being  allowed  to  ride  but  myself.  The  unmerciful 
Arabs  had  deprived  me  of  my  gown,  bonnet,  shoee 
and  stockings,  anii  kft  me  no  other  articles  of  clotb- 
ing  but  my  petticoat  and  shimmy,  which  expos^'t 
my  head  and  almost  naked  body  to  the  blazing  heat 
of  the  sun's  darting  rays.  The  fate  of  my  poor  hus- 
band, and  his  companions,  was  however  still  worse  ; 
the  Arabs  had  divested  them  of  every  article  of 
clothing  but  their  trousers  ;  aud  while  their  naked 
bodies  were  scorched  by  the  sun,  the  burning  sand 
raised  blisters  upon  their  feet  which  rendered  iheii' 
travelling  intolerably  painful.  If  any  through  ina- 
bility slackened  his  pace,  or  fell  in  the  rear  of  the 
maia  body,  he  was  forced  upon  a  trot  by  the  appiica* 
tion  of  a  sharp  stick  which  his  master  carried  in  his 
hand  for  that  purpose. 

About  noon,  we  having  signified  to  the  Arabs  our 
inability  to  proceed  any  further  without  some  re- 
freshment, they  came  to  a  halt»  and  gave  us  about 
half  a  pint  of  slimy  water  each  ;  and  for  food  some 
roasted  insects,  which  1  then  knew  not  the  name  of, 
but  afterward  found  were  locusts,  which  abounded 
very  much  in  some  pans  of  the  desert.  In  my  then 
half  starved  state  I  am  certaia  that  I  never  in  my 
life  partook  of  th©  most  palatable  dish  with  half  so 
good  an  appetite.  Having  refreshed,  we  were  again 
hurried  forward,  and  were  not  pc  mitied  to  step 
again  until  about  sunset,  when  the  Arabs  came  it 
a  halt  for  ihe  night,  and  pitched  t^ir  tents— my 


master  orilered  me  to  dismount,  and  after  he  had 
turned  his  camel  loose  to  feed  upon  the  juicelcss 
shrubs  that  were  thinly  scattered  about  the  tent,  he 
presented  me  with  about  half  a  pint  of  water,  and  a 
kandful  more  of  the  insects  1  after  which  1  was 
permitted  to  lie  down  in  the  tent,  to  repose  for  the 
night  ;  this  was  an  indulgence  that  was  not  allowed 
the  other  captives,  and  would  not  probably  have 
been  allowed  me,  had  it  n(  t  been  for  my  very  weak 
atate,  which  caused  my  masterio  fear^  that  without 
proper  attention,  he  might  lose  his  property  ;  for  it 
appears  (by  what  I  have  since  learned)  that  they 
considered  us  of  about  as  much  rslue  as  theit  cam- 
els, and  to  preserve  our  lives  were  willing  to  use 
us  with  about  as  much  care  and  attention.  My  poor 
husband  and  his  companions  were  compelled  to  take 
up  their  lodging  on  the  dry  sand,  with  nothing  but  \he 
canopy  of  heaven  to  cover  themt  I  this  night,  as  I 
did  every  succeeding  night  before  I  closed  my  eyes, 
returned  thanks  to  Almighty  God  for  preserving  me 
and  enabling  me  to  bear  up  under  my  heavy  afflic- 
tions during  the  day  past  ;  to  Him  I  looked,  and  on 
Him  alone  depended,  for  a  deliverance  from  bitter 
captivity— .nor  did  I  each  morning  fail  to  return 
Him  thanks  for  his  goodness  in  preserving  me 
through  the  night. 

At  day  ligh)  we  were  called  on  to  proceed.  The 
Arabs  struck  their  tents,  and  I  was  placed  as  before 
en  my  master's  camel  ;  while  the  other  captives 
were  compelled  to  hobble  along  on  foot  as  well  as 
ihey  eculU,     A  few  moments  befere  we  commenced 

^  «»23 — 

otrr  jeurney,  I  v/as  pciniitted  to  exchange  a  few 
words  vilh  my  I  ubltand — be  informed  me  with 
t«ars  in  his  eyes,  that  his  bodily  strength  began  to 
fail  him,  and  that  if  he  did  not  meet  with  better 
treatment,  he  was  fearful  that  he  should  not  survive; 
mat^y  days  4  in  the  ni^an  time  expressing  a  hope  that 
®od  would  preserve  my  life,  and  again  restore  me 
to  my  fiit;ndf  I  comfaricd  him  a*!  I  couid,  assur* 
«d  him  that  if  we  put  our  trust  in  God,  He.  certainly 
Would  remember  mercy  in  the  midst  of  judgment? 
and  would  so  far  restrain  the  wrath  of  our  enemicsj 
as  to  prevent  their  »urderiag  us.  And  the  mor^  to 
encourage  him,  I  then  repeated  the  two  following 
texts  of  scripture — "  I  shall  not  die  but  live  :  And 
declare  the  woiks  of  the  Lord.  *  Psalms  cxviii  17;— 
'<  Why  art  thou  cast  down,  O  sciv  soul  ?  And  why 
an  thou  disquitttd  with  me  ?  Hope  thou  in  God  i 
for  I  shall  yet  prair<e  him.  who  is  the  health  of  my 
countenance,  and  my  God'*  Psalms  xiii.  II. 

By  sunrise  we  were  again  on  our  march,  and 
travelled  until  night,  over  a  sandy  desert,  without 
sight  of  any  living  creature  but  ourselves — sands  and 
skies  were  all  that  presented  to  view,  except  now 
and  then  small  spots  of  suriburnt  moss — indeed  be- 
fore us,  as  far  as  eye-sight  could  extend,  presented 
a  dreary  prospect  of  sun  burnt  plains  without  grass^ 
^tick  or  shrub.  Some  of  my  poor  unfortunate  fel- 
low captives  being  unable  10  proceed  any  further^ 
the  Arabs  came  to  a  halt  a  little  before  sunset ;  and 
pitched  their  tcntS;2md  iiav in g  unloaded  their  cam- 

cl»,   they  dispatched  two  of  their  companions  Witha 
camel  to  the  west.     We  were  now  presented  with 
a  like  quantity  of  water  and  food,  as  on  the  day  pro- 
ceeding, and  permitted  to   lie  down  under  a  corner 
of  a  tent  to  rest  our  wearied   limbs.     Here   I  had 
another  opportunity   to  eonyerse  with  my  husband) 
and  to  witness  more  minutely  the  wretched  condition 
of  my  other  companions  in  distress  ;  some  of  whom 
appeared  to  be  on  the  ere  of  exchanging  a  world  of 
trouble  and  sorrow  for  a  better^     The  sustenance  al- 
lowed them  was  hardly  sufficient  to  keep  the  breath 
ef  life   in  them — having  been  depiived  of  nearly  all 
their  clothing,  and  their  bodies  exposed  to  the  sum 
they  were  rendered  so  weak,  emaciated    and  sore» 
that  they  could  scarcely  stand*— they  al)  thought  that 
they  could  not   live  another  day  !  I  exhorted  them 
not  to  fail  to  call  on  the  Supreme  Being  in  a  proper 
manner  for  help,   as  He  alone  had  power  to  deliver 
them  from  the  hands  of  their  unmerciful  masters  ; 
and    if  ever  so  fortunate  as  to  meet  with  a  deliver- 
ance,  and  to  be  once  more  restored  to  their  families 
and   friends,  never  to  let  it  be  said  of  them  as  of  Is- 
rael— ^"  They  forgat  his  works,  and  the  wonders  he 
shewed  them  ;  they  remembered    not  his  hand,    nor 
the  day  that  he  delivered  them  from  the  enemy.*' 

A  little  after  sunset,  the  two  Arabs  who  had  been 
dispatched  with  the  tamel  to  the  west,  returned, 
drWing  the  beast  before  them — as  soon  as  they  reach- 
ed the  tent  we  discovered  thai  th«y  had  brought  a 
SiliiB  of  fresh  fyater  (which  they  probably  had  been  in 

quest  of)  aad  a  quantity  of  a  small  ground  rooi, 
which  in  appearance,  resembled  European  ground- 
nuts, md  were  equally  as  agreeable  to  the  taste.  Of 
tht  watar  they  allowed  ui  nearly  a  pint  each,  which 
was  a  seasonable  relief,  for  without  it,  1  am  cer- 
tain that  some  of  my  companions  would  not  have 
survived  the  night.  It  was  pleasing  to  nae  to  wit- 
ness the  apparent  gratitude,  which  every  one  of  the 
crew  now  manifested  toward  Him,  who  had  wrought 
their  deliverance  from  immediate  starvation«»after 
we  had  pftrtaken  of  our  scanty  meal,  it  was  proposed 
by  me  that  we  should  all  kneel,  and  individually  re* 
turn  ihaijks  to  God,  for  this  wonderful  proof  of  hit 
infinite  goodness— a  proposition  that  was  cheerfully 
agreed  to  by  all,  the  Arabs  in  the  mean  time  stand- 
ing over  us,  apparently  much  diverted  with  a  view 
of  the  altitude  in  which  we  placed  our  bodies  during 
our  pious  devotions. 

The  ensuing  morning  we  started  very  early,  trav» 
elling  west,  and  about  noon  arrived  at  the  well  fronB 
which  the  water  brought  us  had  been  obtained  the 
day  previous — the  well  had  the  appearance  of  having 
been  dug  many  years,  and  contained  five  or  six  feet 
of  water,  of  a  quality  too  inferior  to  be  drank  by  our 
meanest  brutes,  if  any  better  could  be  obtained** 
Preparaiiens  were  now  made  to  water  the  camelsj 
they  having  never  drank  a  drop  to  our  knowledge 
since  the  day  we  fell  into  tho  hands  of  the  Arabs.  -• 
Troughs  sufficiently  large  to  contain  half  a  barrel 
'^as  filled  twice,  and  the  whole  drat.k  by  a  single 

camel — nature  seems  to  have  formed  these  animals 
for  the  express  purpose  of  crossing  the  sandy  dc" 
sarts,  and  when  watered,  to  drink  a  sufficient  quan» 
tity  to  last  them  trom  four  to  six  weeks;  wai  this 
rot  the  case,  they  certainly  must  perish  in  travelling 
from  well  to  well,  which  are  situated  many  miles 
fiom  each  other.  For  my  own  part,  so  great  was 
the  quantity  of  water  given  to  the  camels,  that  i  was 
tindei  very  serious  apprehetuion  that  none  would  be 
Jelt  for  us  ;  for  so  great  now  was  our  thirst,  that 
had  we  been  permitted,  we  would  have  gladly  thrust 
in  our  heads,  and  drank  out  of  the  same  trough  with 
the  camels  i  but  this  we  were  not  allowed  to  do? 
nor  would  they  allow  us  Jo  approach  the  well  until 
the  camels  had  been  supplied  with  as  much  water  as 
they  could  drink  ;  this  being  done,  the  troughs 
were  next  filled  for  us,  when  we  were  permitted  {in 
imitation  of  the  camels)  to  kneel  down,  thrust  in  our 
heads  and  drink  until  wc  were  satisfied.  1  am 
confident,  that  I  drank  three  pints,  and  wiihout  pro- 
ducing the  serious  effects  that  one  would  apprehend 
after  suffering  so  much  from  thirst.  I  now  by  signs 
begged  of  my  master  for  something  to  eat  ;  but  he 
gave  me  only  a  very  small  quantity  of  the  roots 
heretofore  de^cribed,  at  the  same  time  by  feigns,  giv- 
ing nie  to  undtrstand  that  in  two  or  three  days,  we 
should  reach  the  place  of  their  destination,  where  hia 
family  dwelt,  and  who  would  supply  me  with  as 
much  food  as  1  should  want. 

The  Arabs  next  proceeded  to  fill  their  goatskins 

— 2r^ 

wiih  water,  vrhich  having  done,  they  slung  them  on 
each  side  of  their  camels— the  camel  belonging  to 
my  master  was  next  ordered  to  kneel,  and  I  again 
placed  on  his  back — tbus  prepared  we  again  resum- 
ed our  journey,  xra veiling  east.  The  face  of  the 
dcsart  in  every  direction  had  still  the  same  barren 
appearance,  and  at  noon  day  the  rays  of  the  sun  had 
a  most  powerful  effect  upon  our  almost  naked  bo- 
dies— having  been  deprived  of  my  bonnet,  and  hav- 
ing nothing  to  defend  my  head  from  the  sun*s  scorch" 
ing  rays,  the  pain  that  1  endured  was  extremely  ex- 
cruciating ;  yet,  I  praised  God  that  I  was  not  doom- 
ed to  walk  on  foot  and  at  night  to  lie  in  the  scorch- 
ing sands,  as  my  fellow  sufferers  were  compelled 
to  do..  During  the  day  we  continued  our  dreary 
route  wiihout  the  discovery  of  any  thing  that  could 
serve  to  relieve  the  cravings  of  nature—we  con- 
tinued however  to  travel  until  eight  o'clock  in  the 
evening,  when  the  Arabs  came  to  a  halt,  and  pitched 
their  tents  for  the  night  To  altempt  to  describe 
|he  situation  of  my  poor  husband,  as  well  as  the  rest 
of  his  unfortunate  fellow-captives,  at  this  time,  would 
be  a  impossible  for  any  one  to  do  but  those 
who  witnessed  it.  The  sun  had  scorched  and  blis- 
tered our  bodies  from  head  to  foot  ;  I  will  not  pre- 
tend to  describe  their  feelings  ;  the  compassionate 
reader  will  paini  our  distress  in  his  imagination  in 
stronger  colours  than  can  be  described  by  words* 
We  had  nothing  now  left  to  eat ;  our  masters,  how» 
^ver.  bad  the  humanity  to  give  us  as  much  water  a^ 


we  could  drink,  and  after  returning  thanks  to  heaven 
ss  usual,  for  our  preservation  through  the  day,  we 
retired  to  seek  repose  lor  the  night. 

The  next  morning  we  were  ordered  early  to  arise 
and  prepare  for  our  journey  ;  but  three  rf  my  un- 
fortunate fellow  captives  (one  of  whom  was  a  lad  of 
but  15  years  of  age)  signified  to  their  masters,  by 
signs,  liieir  inability  to  proceed  one  step  further  un- 
less ihcy  were  provided  with  some  sustenance,  of 
which  ihcy  had  been  deprived  for  the  last  thii  ty-six 
liours.  The  unmerciful  Araba  thereupon  became 
greatly  enraged,  and  beat  those  who  had  complained 
of  their  we&kness  most  unmercifully  ;  but  the  blows 
inflicted  upon  the  poor  wretches,  only  increased 
their  inabiruy  to  travel.  The  Arabs  finding  that 
blows  had  no  effect,  and  unwilling  to  part  with  any 
of  us,  they  next  consulted  together  what  was  best  to 
be  done  to  preserve  our  lives,  it  being  evident  to 
them  that  none  of  us  could  survive  another  d?.y 
without  some  kind  of  nourishment,  of  >hich  they 
were  thcm.selves  now  destitute  ;  they  at  length  a- 
greed  to  kill  one  of  their  camels  ;  and  the  one  on 
which  I  rode,  being  the  oldest  of  the  drove,  they  ob- 
tained the  consent  of  my  master  to  butcher  that  ; 
the  busiaess  being  thus  settled,  they  began  to  make 
preparation  for  the  slaughter.  They  compelled  the 
poor  animal  to  kneel  down  in  the  usual  manner,  as 
when  about  to  be  relieved  from  or  to  receive  a  load 
and  then   wiih  a   rope  hauling  his  head  back  ncai  If 

—  29— 

to  his  rump,  they  wuh  one  of  their  scymeters,  ^t 
his  throat  ;  the  blood  they  caught  in  a  bucket  as  it 
flowed  fron\  the  wound,  f.ud  were  extremely  careful 
not  to  lose  a  drop— such  was  our  hunger  at  this 
time,  that  we  wculd  have  gladly  drank  it  as  it  stream- 
ed warm  from  the  beast.  Indeed  such  was  the  state 
of  Djur  stomachs,  that  I  am  cocfident  that  we  should 
not  have  loathed  animal  food  even  in  a  state  of  pu- 
trefaction I 

The  camel  was  now  dressed  by  the  Arabs  in  much 
the  same  manner  as  the  Europeans  dress  a  butcher- 
ed   ox  ;  but  there  was  not  a    panicle   of  any   thing' 
belonging  to  the  carcase,  but  was  esteemed   of  too 
much  value  to  be  wasted  :  even  the  hide  and  entrails 
were  carefully  preserved.     The  Arabs,    assisted  by 
the  captives,  next  busied    themselves    in   g^lh«ring 
small  twigs  and  dry  grass,  with  which  to  cook  a  part 
of  the    animal.     The  blood  was  first   poured  into  a 
copper  kf  ttle,  and  set  on  the  fire  to  boil,  the  Aralis 
siirring  it   viih  slicks  until  it  became  a  thick  cake  ; 
this  being  done,    the  entrails  (with  very  little  cleans- 
ing) was  next  deposited  in  the  kettle  and  set  on  the 
nre  to  bake  or  stew,  after  which  the  whole  was-  dis- 
tributed among  the  captives  to   eat ;  this  was  a  re- 
lief that  none  of  us  anticipated  when  we  arose  in  the 
morning;  nor  did  I  fail  on  this  occasion  to  pour  out 
my  ^oul  in  rapturous,  effusions  of  thankfulness  to  the 
Supreme  Being  ;  nor  did  I  find  it   very  difficult   to 
persuade  my  fello*?  captives  to  folio's;'  my  example^— 

this,  our  woudcrful  deliverance,  wbile  on  the  very 
brinkof  starvation,  was  to  me  another  proof  of  the 
mercy  and  goodness  of  God,  and  that  with  us  in  the 
present  instance  he  had  eminently  fulfilled  the  word 
eontaincd  in  Psalms  cvi.  46  :  ''  He  made  them  also 
to  be  pitied,  of  all  those  that  caiiied  them  captives*** 
While  we  were  devouring  the  food  allotted  uSf 
the  Arabs  were  employed  ia  cutting  up  and  roast- 
ing the  carcase,  which  done,  they,  like  ravenous 
volves,  devoured  moie  ib;nhaIfof  it,  and  the  re- 
remainder  drp^siied  in  their  bags  slung  upo.i  their 
camels.  Preparations  were  now  made  for  our  de- 
parture. I  begged  of  my  master  to  indulge  me  with 
the  privilege  of  conversing  a  few  moments  with  my 
husband,  bcioie  we  reasiaumed  our  journey,  as  h« 
had  informed  me,  in  a  few  words  the  evening  pre- 
vious, that  he  had  soniething  important  to  comaiu* 
nicatr  ;  after  a  good  deal  of  persuasion  the  indul- 
gence  was  granted  me,  and  my  husband  having  beg- 
fjed  the  same  indulgence  and  obtained  the  same  lib- 
erty of  his  master,  we  were  permitted  to  seat  our- 
selves in  one  ccrner  of  the  tent  to  converse.  My 
husband  now  informed  me  that  by  what  he  could 
h.nn  from  the  Arabs,  (as  they  were  of  different 
clars,)  we  were  soon  to  b  esepeiated  andf  conveyed  to 
diflfeccDt  pirts  of  the  country,  and  retained  as  cap. 
tives,  until  they  could  have  an  opportunity  to  dis- 
pose of  us  to  some  of  their  brethren  bound  to  the 
capital  of  Morocco,  where  an  English  consul  resided^ 

and  of  whom  they  expecud  a  good  price,  as  they 
knew  it  was  his  duty  to  redeem  all  the  European 
captives  that  should  fall  into  their  hands  That  he 
had  done  ail  in  his  powtr  to  persuade  his  master  to 
purchase  me,  to  prevent  our  seperation,  but  without 
any  success;  his  master  informing  him  that  my 
my  master  could  not  be  persuaded  to  part  with  me,' 
as  he  well  knew  that  the  English  Consul  would 
pay  double  price  for  the  redemption  of  a  female 
captive  ;  that  he  then  by  signs  gave  him  to  under* 
atand  that  the  female  captive  was  his  wife,  and  that 
that  the  Consul  would  give  him  four  times  the  sum 
f{.r  the  redemption  of  both  together,  (that  they  might 
be  each  other's  compat  y  to  their  own  cuuiitry)  than 
he  woukl  to  be  obliged  o  redeem  them  seperatcly 
at  different  periods:  but  his'^aster  could  not  be 
persuaded  either  to  purchase  rre  or  to  part  with  him. 
Here  my  poor  husbimd  concluded  by  observing,  that 
as  I  was  used  withless  severity  by  the  natives  than 
any  of  the  other  captives,  he  hoped  that  1  should  be 
so  fortunate  as  once  more  to  gain  my  liberty,  by  the 
intercession  of  some  friend  who  might  hear  of  my 
ceptivity  ;  but,  as  for  himself,  he  had  become  so  ex. 
trcmt^Iy  feeble,  in  const  qucncc  of  the  treatment 
\ihich  he  met  with  from  the  natives,  that  he  des- 
paired of  living  to  regain  his  liberty.  I  begged  of 
him  not  to  despair,  while  life  remained — that  if  he 
put  his  trust  in  God,  he  would  be  his  friend,  and  not 
forsake  him,  but  in  his  own  good  time  restore  us  ul* 
k>  our  liberty  and  to  our  friends  ;  that  it  might  prove 

^ood  for  us  that  we  were  thus  afflicted,  aiicj  as  God 
certainly  knew  bebt,\Ahat  was  for  our  gocd,  w€ 
ought  to  pray  ihai  God's  '.vill  be  doije  ;  thai  the  Al- 
mighty had  enabled  ua  thus  far  to  surmount  diftkul- 
tie*,  and  to  perform  lediouji  jourj  eys  each  day  of  ma- 
ny miles,  when  we  cci^ceived  it  tun.ost  impossible 
for  us  in  the  morning  to  travel  ha;f  the  distance. 
My  husband  now  told  me  that  lie  hiid  been  informed 
by  one  of  the  sailors  that  his  ma>iet'  had  taken  a  bi- 
ble from  him  which  he  found  in  his  knapsack,  and 
which  the  Arab  had  sliii  in  his  possession  ;  which 
being  of  no  uae  to  him>  as  he  could  not  read  it,  he 
•thought  he  might  be  persuaded  by  my  master  to 
pan  with  it  if  seasonable  application  was  madc'-— 
This  was  indeed  pleasing  news  to  me,  as  in  case  of 
ii  scperation  from  my  poor  husband  1  could  find  in 
this  sacred  To'ume  that  consolation  \vhich  no  hu- 
man power  on  earth  could  afford  jne. 

The  hoarse  voices  of  our  misters  were  no>v  heard, 
commanding  us  to  sepcrate  and  prepare  to  continue 
our  journey*  Since  the  camel  en  which  I  rode  had 
been  slain,  not  a  thought  until  this  moment  entcreij 
my  mind  whether  I  should  any  longer  be  thus  in* 
dulgedorbe  compelled  like  the  other  captives  to 
lyavel  on  foot ;  if  the  latter  was  their  intention  I 
was  certain  that  my  situation  would  be  infinitely 
worse  than  that  of  my  husband  ;  for  as  the  Arabs 
had  robbed  me  of  my  shoes  and  stockings,  were 
they  to  compel  mc  thus  tio  travel  they  would  rery 
roon  find  the  neceesity  cf  either  leaving  ms  behifldi 

to  perish  with  burger,  or  of  Jlspatchir.g  w\q  at  onco 
with  their  scymeters  ;  but,  my  anxious  doubts  were 
veyy  soon  removed  by  the  appearance  of  my  mas- 
ter, leading  a  camel,  Nrhich  being  compelled  to 
kneel,  I  was  ordered  to  mourvt. 

Wc  set  forward  in  an  easterly  direction,  and  m 
consequence  of  the  food  with  which  we  had  been 
supplied^  travelled  with  much  belter  spirits  than  we 
had  done  for  many  days  before — a  little  before  sun- 
set, we  came  to  a  well  of  tolerable  good  water, 
where  were  a  large  company  of  Arabs  \v  Atari  ig 
their  camels;  the  strangers  were  all  armed  with 
muskets,  and  were  double  our  number.  Our  masters 
were  ail  mounted,  but  instantly  leaped  off  their 
camels,  and  unsheathing  their  guns,  prepared  for 
action,  should  the  strangers  prove  enemies.  They 
approached  us  hastily  with  a  horrible  shout — I  cx- 
pected^r.ow  to  see  a  battle  ;  but  when  they  had  ar- 
rived within  half  gun-shot  of  us,  they  stepped  short 
and  demanded  who  we  were  ?  what  cnunlry  wo 
(the  slaves)  were  ?  and  where  our  masters  had  found 
us?  To  which  questions  my  master  briefly  replied) 
assuring  ihem  that  the  place  where  wc  had  been 
shipwrecked  was  but  a  very  short  distance,  not  more 
than  two  drivs  travel;  and  that  they  had  left  the 
beach  strewed  with  many  articles  of  inestimablo 
value,  which  they  were  unable  to  bring  nv;ay  with 
Ihcm— this  was  a  stratagem  made  use  of  by  my 
master,  to  prevent  the  strangers  molesiing  us  ;  for 
33  they  live  by  stealing,  they  conceive  that  p.cper>5r 

belongs  lo  no  one,  unless  he  has  power  lo  defend  it. 

The  strangers,  elated  with  the  prospect  of  obtaining 
their  share  of  booty,  hastily  naounted  their  cancels 
and  departed  for  the  place,  where  our  masters  as- 
sured ihem  they  would  find  the  wreck,  and  the 
valuable  property  they  had  described  to  them.— 
They  were,  to  the  very  great  satisfaction  of  out 
masters,  scon  out  of  sight,  and  left  us  in  peaceable 
possession  of  the  welK  Here  we  had  once  more  an 
oppcrtunity  to  quench  our  thirst,  but  not  however 
until  the  camels  and  their  masters  had  drank  their 

As  the  sun  bad  now  set,  a  dispute  commenced  be- 
tween the  Arabs  whether  we  should  pitch  our  tents 
here  for  the  night,  or  proceed  a  few  miles  further. 
It  was  argued  by  those  who  were  against  stopping 
here,  that  the  Arabs  who  had  gone  in  quest  of  the 
wreck,  might  alter  their  minds  and  return  in  the 
c-ourse  of  the  night,  and  possess  themselves  of  their 
prisoners.  As  an  Arab  had  rather  part  with  his  life 
than  his  property,  it  did  not  reqi.ire  much  argu« 
TT.ent  to  satisfy  those  who  were  a?  first  of  a  differ- 
ent opinion,  that  to  proceed  to  a  place  of  more  safe- 
ty, would  he  the  wisest  step.  Having  filled  their 
pkins  with  water,  and  permitting  us  to  take  a  second 
draught,  they  quit  the  well  near  an  hour  after  sun* 
•,  and  alter  ascending  and  desccndirg  prodigious 
Jiifrs  of  dry  sand  uiiiil  our  sirenglh  had  become 
nearly  exhausted,  our  masters  at  length  found  a 
3nvg  retreat  s".jrrcu-i:Icd  on    al!  sid&s  by  high    sand 


drifts.  As  it  was  nearly  midnight,  they  thought  it 
not  worth  while  to  pitch  their  tents,  but  compelled 
us  to  lie  down  in  the  deep  sane!,  and  charged  us  not 
to  exchange  a  word  with  each  other,  or  make  the 
least  noise.  Here,  in  our  most  exhausted  state^ 
were  we  compelled  to  lie  on  the  bare  ground,  with, 
out  the  smallest  shelter  from  the  heavy  dews  of  tho 
night,  and  enduring  beside  the  cravings  of  hunger, 
excruciating  pains  in  all  our  limbs.  Our  masters 
accustomed  to  such  hardships,  did  not  even  con^" 
plain  of  fatigue. 

As  soon  as  day  light  appeared,  they  allowed  u^ 
a  small  portion  of  what  remained  of  the  camel,  af- 
ter which  we  were  called  upoD  again  to  pursue 
our  journey.  The  Arabs  were  exceeding  careful  in 
iheir  preparations  to  depart,  not  lo  make  the  least 
noise,  and  forbid  our  uttering  a  word,  least  they 
should  be  discovered  by  an  enemy  more  powerful 
than  themselves.  By  sun  rise  we  were  on  our 
march— they  compelled  my  husband  and  his  poor 
fellow- captives  to  keep  up  with  the  camels,  although 
iheir  feet  were  extremely  sore  and  swollen — for  my 
own  piri  (next  to  hunger  and  thirst)  the  most  that  1 
had  endured  was  from  the  scorching  rays  of  the 
sun  beating  upon  my  bare  head  ;  but  having  now 
gone  so  long  bare-headed,  my  head  had  become  ac- 
custcmcd  to  the  heat,  a»id  though  it  remained  uncov- 
ered, it  did  not  pain  me.  Since  ray  capiiviiy,  I  had 
many  times  begged  of  my  master  that  he  would  re 
turn  me  my  bonnet,  as  the  only  means  by  which  he 

ecu  Id  CKpect  to  preserve  my  life  ;  but  he  always, 
by  signs,  gave  me  to  understand  that  it  was  the 
property  of  another,  who  would  not  be  prevailed  up- 
on to  part  with  it. 

The  desert  now  before  us  had  the  same  sandy  ap, 
pe^ ranee  we  had  before  observed— .all  was  a  dreary, 
solitary  waste,  without  a  tree  or  shrub  to  arrest  the 
view  within  the  horizon.  Wc  continued  on  our 
route,  however,  as  well  as  our  situation  would  ad- 
mit, until  an  hour  after  sunset,  when  the  Arabs 
pitched  their  tents  as  usual,  and  we  were  permitted 
to  retire  to  rest,  although  our  extreme  hunger  (hav- 
ing eaten  nothing  but  a  morsel  of  camel's  flesh  for 
the  last  24  hours)  deprived  us  of  sleep  In  the 
morning,  so  reduced  were  many  of  the  captives,  by 
fatigue  and  hunger,  that  they  were  scarcely  enabled 
te  stand  on  their  feet.  It  was  in  vain  that  the  cruel 
Arabs  beat  them  unmercifully,  *o  force  ihem  to  re- 
new their  journey— their  legs  were  too  weak  to  sup- 
port even  their  emaciated  bodies.  The  Arabs  be- 
came at  length  satisfied  that  food  must  very  soon 
be  obtained,  or  they  should  lose  some  of  their  pris- 
oners. While  they  were  debating  on  what  was  to 
be  done,  the  fresh  tracks  of  camels  were  discovered 
by  some  of  the  company,  a  short  distance  to  the 
west  of  where  we  were  encamped.  The  Arab^- 
seemed  overjoyed  at  the  discovery,  and  eight  or  ten 
of  them  ruounied  on  the  best  cam^^ls,  set  out  in  pur" 
suit  of  the  travellers,  to  beg  a  supply  of  provisionf*' 
]if  frignds,  and  to  take  it  by  force,  if  enemies. 

As  we  were  likely  to  remain  here  soiHe  time  (at 
icait  till  the  return  of  those  who  had  been  dispatch- 
ed in  quest  of  provision)  I  solicited  «iid  wts  so  fortu- 
nate as  to  be  allowed  the.  privilege  of  another  inter- 
view with  my  poor  unfortunate  husband.  I  found 
him  laboring  under  a  still  greater  depression  of  spi- 
rits,  than  when  I  last  had  the  privilege  of  convers- 
ing with  him— he  said  thtt  every  hour  now  seemed 
to  throw  a  deeper  gloom  over  his  fate,  and  that  na- 
ture could  not  possibly  hold  out  but  a  short  time 
longer  I  and,  indeed,  that  such  was  the  state  of 
wrelchednesa  to  which  he  was  reduced,  th«t  (as  re- 
garded himself)  death  was  stripped  of  all  its  terrorg! 
I  once  more  remindad  him  of  the  power  •f  the  AU 
mighty  to  relieve  us,  and  of  the  nccc  ssity  of  relying 
on  his  mercy — that  through  his  divine  good»ess,  we 
ought  to  be  thankful  that  our  lives  had  been  so  long 
miraculously  preserved — that  although  our  afflic* 
lions  had  been  very  great,  and  might  still  be  even 
greater,  yet  the  Lord  was  able  to  support  us»  and 
might  in  due  season  be  pleased  to  effett  our  due  de- 
liverance ;  as  he  had  declared  to  us  in  Ptalms  6, 
15.  ^'  And  call  upon  me  in  the  day  of  trouble,  I  will 
deliver  thee,  and  thou  »halt  glorify  me." 

My  husband  now  informed  mc,  thai  his  suspicions 
that  we  were  to  be  scperated  and  conveyed  to  dif- 
ferent parts  of  the  desert,  without  a  prospect  of  see- 
ing each  other  again,  had  been  confirmed  by  the 
declaration  of  the  chief  cf  the  clan,wiih  whom  he  bad 
had  much  conTcrsation  respecting  our  future  dt sti- 

oy — the  chief  giving  him  to  undeT8tand«  that  it  was 
the  intention  of  our  masters  to  retain  us  as  slaves 
tintil  an  opportunity  should  present  to  dispose  of  ua 
to  some  of  their  countrymen  bound  to  the  Moorish 
dominions,  where  a  high  price  would  be  paid  for  us 
by  the  Sultan's  friend  (Briti«h  Consul)  that  he  had 
tried  to  prevail  upon  him  to  purchase  me,  and  to 
convey  us  both  lo  Morocco  (or  Marockish  as  the 
Arabs  term  i)  where  he  assured  him  Tve  had  friend&t 
■^ho  would  pay  a  haiKlsome  price  f»r  us ;  but  with- 
out any  success— his  master  assuring  him,  that  ray 
jBaster  couid  not  be  prevailed  upon  to  part  with  me, 
for  all  tiio  property  he  was  worth,  and  that  he  woubl 
not  engage  to  convey  him  (my  husband)  to  Morock- 
ish  ior  the  price  of  his  life  ;  as  he  should  have  to 
pass  through  many  tdbes  with  whom  they  were  a* 
^ar — **  thus  my  dear  wife  (concluded  my  husband) 
you  see  that  the  prospect  of  our  speedy  redemption 
is  very  small,  and  I  am  confident  that  if  our  captivityi 
continues  a  month  longer,  and  we  are  not  treated 
with  more  lenity,  not  one  of  us  will  be  found  alive, 
for  every  oie  of  my  unfortunate  fellow  captives  are 
if  possible,  in  a  more  deplorable  situation  than  my. 

Such  indeed  as  had  been  represented  by  my  hu»« 
Ikin4,  was  the  situation  of  ihesc  victims  of  misfiat^ 
tunc  ;  overwhelmed  with  fatigue,  unable  to  obtaifi 
repose,  tormented  with  hunger,  and  consigned, 
tvithout  any  human  assistance,  into  the  hands  of 
mercilesa  barbarians.      These  ferocious  monsters. 


whenever  they  utteiHid  a  murmur,  appeared  so  en* 
raged  against  them,  that  when  they  spoke  to  them» 
the  fire  flashed  from  their  eyes,  and  the  white,  so* 
perceptible  in  the  Moors  and  Arabs,  could  not  be 
distinguished — and  even  in  their  most  debilitated 
state,  they  were  guarded  with  such  vigilance,  that 
an  Arab  with  a  spear  or  a  musket  in  his  hand)  at- 
tended them  upon  every  occasion  ;  the  barbariane 
being  apprehensive  that  (hey  might  escape,  or  that 
their  prey  might  be  taken  froiia  them  by  force. 

The  Arabs  sent  in  pursuit  of  the  travellers  return- 
ed about  noon,  and  brought  with  them  the  bones  and 
entrails  of  a  kid,  a  small  portion  of  which  the;/  gave 
to  us.  It  was  sweet  to  our  taste,  though  hut  a  mor- 
sel,  and  we  pounded,  chewed  and  swallowed  all  the 
bones.  They  nftw  finished  their  last  sack  of  water- 
having  taken  a  plentiful  drink  themselves,  they  gave 
■us  the  relicks,  which  was  inferior  to  bilge  water.— 
The  Ar&bs  having  concluded  to  proceed  no  farther* 
this  day,  they  had  the  humanity  to  suffer  the  weak- 
est of  the  captives  to  lodge  at  night  ur^dera  comer 
of  their  tent.  The  ensuing  morning  they  compelled 
Bs  to  start  as  soon  as  it  was  light,  and  travelled  ve- 
ry fast  until  noon,  when  they  came  to  a  halt  to  let 
their  camels  breathe,  and  feed  on  a  few  shrubs  that 
were  thinly  scattered  among  the  sand  drifts,  Wc 
were  here  so  fortunate  as  to  find  a  few  snails,  which 
the  captives  were  privileged  to  roast  and  eat,  which 
in  some  measure  allayed  the  cravings  of  hunger-^ 
having  thus  refreshed,  w-e  were  ordered  by  our  mas- 

ters  once  more  to  put  forward,  /and  taking  a  north' 
caitcrly  course,  travelled  rapkily  through  prodi- 
gious •  -''drifts  until  late  in  the  evening — my  niaa- 
ter  by  words  and  signs  encouraging  me,  that  if  ray 
strength  did  not  fail,  he  should  reach  his  village  the 
flay  ensuing  ;  where  I  should  be  plentifully  sup- 
plied vith  victuals  and  drink.  The  Arabs  having 
iound  a  convenient  spot,  pitched  their  tent,  and 
•gain  gave  us  permission  to  occupy  a  corner  of  it  ; 
but  being  allowed  nothing  this  night  wherewith  t© 
allay  our  hunger,  our  fatigues  and  sufferings  may 
be  more  easily  conceived  than  expressed  ;  yet  as  wo 
were  sheltered  from  the  dews  of  the  night,  we  slepi 
very  soundly  until  we  were  roused  up  to  eonticue 
our  journey. 

The  next  day  about  noon  we  had  the  good  fortune 
to  discover  a  well  of  pure  water— this  was  a  happy 
circan.s.ance,  Cor  having  been  deprived ^f  that  pre* 
cjous  article  for  the  last  twenty-four  hoyrs,  our  mis- 
ery from  thirst  had  become  so  iniolerable,  that  some 
of  the  captives  had  been  induced  to  attempt  to  make 
use  of  that  as  a  substitute,  which  decency  forbids 
me  to  mention.  For  this  unexpected  relief,  our 
souls  were  oTerwhelm«d  with  joy  ;  nor  did  we  fail 
to  raise  our  eyes  and  hearts  to  heaven,  in  adoration 
and  silent  thankfulness,  while  tears  of  gratitude 
trickled  down  our  haggard  cheeks.  While  our 
masters  were  watering  their  camels,  and  filling  theif 
sacks,  some  of  the  captives  had  pern^isslon  to  go  a 
short  distance  in    search    of  snails,    and    were   §^, 

^41  — 

fo'tunate  as  to  co'iicct,  in  less  thaa  half  an  hcu.^, 
about  three  quarts,  which,  after  being  loasted,  were 
shared  among  the  captires. 

During  our  Ijalt  at  this  place,  I  have  yet  another 
circunvstance  to  record,  which  I  then  esteemed,,  and 
still  esteem  of  more  importance  tp  roe,  if  possible, 
than  even  the  discovery  of  the  well  of  water.  My 
master  having  ordered  me  to  dismount,  that  h« 
might  water  his  camel,  I  seated  myself  on  a  hard 
sand  drift,  a  few  rods  from  the  tvell— here  1  remain- 
ed until  1  saw  him  returning,  leading  his  camel- 
as  he  approached,  I  perceived  that  he  had  some- 
tiling  in  his  hand,  and  on  his  near  approach,  what 
were  my  emotions^  to  find  that  it  was  the  sacred 
volume,  that  my  hiisband  informed  me  was  in  pO€- 
session  of  one  of  the  Arabs,  who  had  taken  it  from 
the  pack  of  a  fellow  captive— .-ihc  Arab,  it  appeared* 
having  conceived  it  of  little  value  (being  opposed  to 
the  Chrislian  faiih)  and  unwilling  to  be  burihcned 
with  it  any  longer,  threw  it  upon  the  sand,  with  an 
intention  of  ther«  leaving  it  My  husband  being 
made  acquainted  with  Itis. determination,  after  mucfe 
persuasion,  prevailed  upon  my  master  to  pick  it  up, 
and  convey  it  to  me  ;  this  he  would  by  no  nican€ 
have  (being  a  strict  Mahometan)  had  not  my 
husband  satisfied  him  by  repeated  assurances,  that 
with  this  precicu?  volume  in  my  possession,  I 
should  be  enabled  to  endure  the  hardships  to  which 
we  were  then  subject,  with  more  fortitude  than  | 
had  done.     My  feelings  on  receiving  so  rich  a  pre= 

sent fi-om  the  hands  of  one,  whose  very  nature  was 
at  enmity  with  our  Christian  religion,  mny  perhaps 
be  conceived  bat  1  cannot  attempt  to  dascribe  them 
-*-to  form  a  correct  ulea  of  my  emotions  at  that 
time,  let  him,  and  him  alone,  who  has  full  fehh  iti 
the  religion  of  Christ,  and  at  vhose  hands  he  has 
found  mercy,  and  is  not  ashamed  to  confess  him 
before  the  world,  transport  himself  in  iniagiDation 
to  the  country  where  I  then  was  ;  a  distant  heathen 
clime,  a  land  of  darkness,  where  the  enemy  of  souls 
reigns  triumphant,  and  where  by  an  idolatrous  race 
the  doctrines  of  a  blessed  Redeemer  are  ireaie<l 
with  derisioo  and  contempt ;  and  none  but  such 
wretches  for  his  companions — thus  situated,  after 
having  been  more  than  two  months  deprived  of  that 
blessed  book,  which  is  so  peculiarly  calculated  to 
afford  him  comfort  and  consolation  in  the  trying 
hour  of  afiliction  and  woe,  let  him  imagine  himself 
presented  with  the  sacred  volume,  and  by  one  who^ 
had  been  taught  to  despise  its  precious  contents  1 

Although  my  master,  in  presenting  me  with  i\\ti 
ftook,  which  to  me  was  of  inestimable  value,  con- 
sulted only  his  own  interest,  yet  I  could  not  but  feel 
grateful  to  hira  for  a  treasure  of  more  value,  than 
any  thing  with  whith  he  could  then  have  presented 
me.  As  soon  as  it  was  in  my  possession,  I  turned 
to  Jer.  31.  16,  and  read  the  following  passage,  which 
afforded  me  great  consolation  :  «  Thus  saiih  the 
Lord^  refrain  thy  voice  from  weepting,  and  thine  ef^ 

from  tears,  for  thy  work  shall  be  rewarded,  and 
they  shali  come  again  from  the  land  of  the  evemy/' 

But  a  very  few  moments  were  allowed  me  at 
this  time  to  examine  the  contents  of  my  new  ac- 
quired treasure,  aa  the  Arabs  having  completed 
their  watenng,  in  less  than  an  hour,  were  prepared 
to  pursue  their  journey  ;  nor  did  J  then  suspect  that 
our  next  place  of  encampment  would  be  that  at 
which  I  should  not  only  be  seperated  from  my  dear 
husband,  as  well  as  from  every  one  of  my  other  fcl'« 
low  captives,  but  the  place  where  I  should  be  doom- 
ed to  pass  many  months  in  captivity  I — my  master 
liad  indeed  intimated  to  me  the  day  previous,  that 
we  should  ^n  this  day  arrive  at  our  place  of  destina* 
tion,  but,  as  he  had  proved  himseif  a  liar  in  a  similar 
promise,  which  he  had  made  many  days  before,  I 
placed  but  liule  reliance  en  his  word  in  the  prescftX 
instance — but  such,  however,  proved  to  be  the 

We  travelled  in  an  easterly  direction  over  a  sac- 
dy,  although  an  extremely  uneven  country  ftr  abo<»t 
six  hours,  at  the  rate  I  should  judge  of  about  four 
miles  an  hour  ;  about  sunset  the  Arabs  commandit>flj 
the  captives  to  halt,  as  they  did  themselves,  they 
set  up  a  most  tiemendeus  halloo,  in  which  they  were 
imnaediatcly  answered  by  some  one  who  appeared 
to  be  but  a  short  distance  from  us.  They  now  push* 
ed  hastily  on,  and  in  a  few  moments,  were  met  by 
six  or  eight  Arabs,  a  part  of  whom  were  women,  o^ 
Iboi,  each  being  armed  with  a  spear  ten  or  twelre 

feet  in  length— tbete  I  soon  fouml  vvet^ii  trj},-  i-nus' 
ter's  fiicnds,  and  a  part  cf  them  of  his  ©v/n  family. 
They  welcomed  the  return  of  thtir  friends  by  rub- 
bing their  limbs  with  dry  sard>  and  then  throwing 
handfrills  of  it  in  the  air,  aftfr  whicii  they  saluted 
ihe  captives  by  spitting  on  us,  pelting  us  with  stones 
and  throwing  sand  in  onr  faces,  acccmpanied  with 
the  vTord  *^  fonta"  (bad) — the  femulss  weie  not  less 
backward  to  insult  me  than  ll^o  menj  and  1  think 
that  1  should  have  met  with  vety  btiious  injury,  had 
I  not  been  protected  by  luy  master,  at  whose  com- 
mand ihcy  desisted,  and  appeared  disposed  Xo  treat 
me  "Aith  less  seveiity.  One  of  them  haviig  snatch- 
ed my  bible  from  under  my  aim,  was  compelled  by 
Riy  master  to  return  it.  We  were  now  conducted 
to  their  Yilhge,  ii  1  may  be  permitted  so  to  term  it, 
\rhjch  was  composed  of  only  a  few  tents  of  a  similar 
censtruction  to  iho&e  which  the  Arabs  carry  with 
them  in  their  excursions.  The  village  was  situated 
in  a  valley  which  had  no  more  the  appearance  of 
fertility  than  the  barren  desert  which  we  had  passed, 
except  a  few  shiubs  and  thorn  bushes  on  which  the 
camels  were  feeding.  When  we  arrived,  the  Arabs 
who  remained  dt  the  tents  were  cDga^ed  in  their 
evening  devotions — s<wne  wcie  kneeling  down  and 
i>owing  their  faces  to  the  ground,  and  others  stand- 
ing and  nibbing  the  naked  parts  of  their  bodies  with 
diy  sand,  in  the  mean  time  conSilantly  repeating  the 
ivoids  «  Allah  Hookibar." 


Having  finished  their  devotions,  and  the  captives 
being  secured  in  on  old  tent  allotted  them,  the  female 
camels  were  driven  up  by  the  women  and  milkid; 
A  bowl  containing  about  six  quarts  of  the  milk, 
mixed  with  two  or  three  quarcs  of  barley  flour,  was 
presented  to  the  captives  to  eat.  This  was  the  first 
time  that  I  had  ever  tasted  of  camel's  milk,  and  in 
my  hungry  state  was  I  think  the  most  delicious  food 
lever  tasted.  My  ptor  fellow  captives,  reduced  by 
hunster  to  skeletons,  seated  themselves  around  the 
bov^l,  and  having  nothing  but  their  hands  to  eat 
with,  they  devoured  its  previous  contents  in  less 
three  minutes.  After  this  about  three  quarts  of 
roasted  snails,  and  about  the  same  quantity  of  brack- 
ish water  were  preiented  u«,  which  were  as  quickly 
devoured — indeed,  to  such  a  state  of  starvation  were 
we  reduced,  that  I  believe  half  a  roasted  camel 
'.vould  noi  have  been  sufficient  for  us.  While  w^ 
were  partaking  of  this  repast,  our  masters  (whoso 
appetites  were  probably  nearly  as  sharp  as  ours) 
were  busily  employed  in  cooking  a  kid,  the  entrails 
of  \Thich  we  were  in  hopes  we  bhould  obtain,  but  iii 
this  we  were  disappointed. 

I  now  had  another  opportuoity  (and  the  last  in  A- 
^abia)  to  converse  with  my  husband,  who  was  ye; 
decided  in  his  opinion  that  our  seperation  was  soon 
to  take  place,  and  that  without  the  kind  interposi- 
tion of  Heaven  in  his  behalf,  that  seperation  he  was 
fearful  would  prove  a  final  one.  13y  hearing  the 
Arabic  80 much  spoken,  he  understood  enough  end 


heard  enaugh  to  satisfy  him  that  the  village  in  which 
we  then  were,  was  the  place  of  my  master*s  abode 
only,ofour  company— that  I  bhould  be  retained  here 
in  captivity,  and  the  remainder  of  them  conveyed, 
probably,  to  more  remote  parts  of  the  de«ert.  He 
labored  under  the  sume  impression,  that  if  his  suf» 
ferings  continued  without  alleviation,  death  must 
soon  terminate  thtm.  Here  he  begged  of  me,  that 
if  I  should  be  more  fortunate,  and  Heaven  should 
thereafter  be  pleased  to  eff#ct  my  deliverance,  thai 
I  would  do  all  in  my  power  to  ascertain  what  had 
been  his  fate,  and  if  still  alive  and  in  captivity,  that 
1  would  interest  the  BritisU  Consul  at  Mogadore  in 
Ms  favor  to  effect  his  deliverance. 

It  may  excite  the  surprize  of  the  reader  that 
while  my  husband  and  his  wretched  companions 
were  in  such  a  state  of  despondency,  I  should  sup- 
port my  sufferings  with  so  great  a  share  of  forti- 
tude. It  may  be  easily  accounted  for,  as  there  was  a 
very  material  difference  in  our  treatment — for  whil6 
the  other  captives  had  been  compelled  to  travel  tiic 
whole  journey,  without  shoes  or  stockings  on  foot 
through  burning  sands,  and  if  they  slackened  their 
pace,  were  beat  unmeicifully  by  their  masters,  I 
was  conveyed  on  the  back  of  a  camel  the  whole 
distance^  withovu  being  compelled  to  walk  five 
rods  ;  and  when  i  had  occasion  to  mount  or  dis" 
mount,  the  camel  wan  compelled  to  kn^el  for  mc  ^ 
c.nd  although  I  endarcd  much  fatigue  at  first  from 
ihdr  mode  of  riding  yet  when  I  became  more  used 


to  the  Arabian  saddle,  1  suffered  but  very  little  in- 
convenieRce  on  that  account  ;  indeed  1  set  af.  easy 
as  in  an  arm  chair.  1  was  also  most  generally  in- 
dulged each  night  with  the  privilege  of  occupying  a 
corner  of  their  tent,  while  my  unfortunate  fellow 
captives  were  compelled,  with  one  or  two  excep- 
tions, to  sleep  in  the  sands,  with  no  other  covering 
butihe  canopy  of  heaven.  Hence,  while  these  poor 
unfortunate  people  were  by  ill  treatment  as  well  as 
hunger  reduced  to  mere  skeletons — their  whole 
bodies  burned  quite  black  by  the  powerful  rays  of 
the  sun,  and  fiiled  with  innumerable  sores  :  their 
feet  blistered  by  the  hot  §ands,  or  severely  gashed 
by  sharp  stones  ;  and  tbeir  heads,  for  the  want  of  an 
epportunitv  to  cleanse  them,  overrun  with  vermiR, 
I,  blessed  be  God,  suffered  but  hltlc,  but  from  hun- 
ger 'diid  thirst. 

It  was  a  pleasing  thing  to  mc  to  see  these  un- 
fortunate captives,  almost  without  an  cxcepti»nj  al- 
though but  a  few  months  before  conducting  as  if 
birangers  to  t'nc  gospel  of  Jesus,  on  their  bended 
>;ncfcs,  imploring  the  mercy  and  protection  of  an  of- 
fended God,  O  that  they  may  continue  to  be  ever 
grateful  to  him  for  past  favors,  and  learn  to  trust  in 
Him  for  the  time  to  come — surely  then  above  most 
others  ihey  have  reason  to  say  *' it  is  good  for  us 
that  we  have  been  inPicied."  By  their  request  1 
read  many  passages  in  my  bible  which  seemed  most 
appropriate  to  our  situation,  and  which  appeared  to 
afford  them  great  consolation'— among  which  were 

—  4i~. 

t!i^  following  : — "  Wait  on  the  Lord,  be  of  good  coo- 
rage,  aid  he  shall  strengthen  thine  heart,  wait  I  say 
on  the  liord.  Psalms  20.  *M  shall  not  die  but  live» 
and  declare  the  works  of  the  Lord  :  The  Lord  hath 
chastized  me  sere,  yet  he  hath  not  given  me  over  to 
death."  Psalms  liS.  17,  18.  "Cast, thy  burthen 
upon  the  Lord,  and  he  shall  sustain  thee."  Psalms 
55.  22.  «  I  know  O  Lord  that  thy  judgments  are 
right,  and  that  thou  in  faithfulness  hath  afflicted  mc.** 
Psalms  119,75. 

As  it  was  now  quite  dark  we  retired  to  rest  upoD 
a  few  old  mats  thai  the  Arabs  had  thfown  into  •ur 
tent  for  us  to  repose  on,  but  the  apprehension  of 
being  sepcrated  the  ensuing  morning  deprived  us 
of  sleep  ;  indeed  U\e  whole  night  was  spent  in  a  state 
of  anxiety  not  easy  to  conceive  of.  While  we  re* 
mained  in  this  situation  until  day  light,  oar  masters 
were  the  whole  night  engaged  in  debate,  there  ap- 
pearing, by  what  little  we  could  undersiandt  still 
some  difficulty  in  deciding  to  whom  each  one  of  us 
belonged  ;  the  dispute  however  at  length  subsiding, 
and  the  time  of  milking  the  camels  having  arriv- 
ed, our  masters  presented  us  with  a  pint  of  milk 
each,  wann  from  the  bea»t,  which  refreshed  us  ve- 
ry much^  Our  tent  was  oow  visited  by  the  wives 
and  children  of  the  Arabs,  >vho  having  iatisfied  their 
cufiosiiy  by  gaziig  at  ua  for  half  an  hour,  to  express 
their  disgUBt,  the  children  were  encouraged  by  their 
mothers   to  spit  and  throw  sand  in    om*   faces—as 


:.oon  hewever  as  this  was  discovered  by  our  masters, 
ihey  were  ordered  off. 

The  Arabs  now  commenced  their  morning  de* 
votions,  by  bowing  themselves  to  the  ground>  rub- 
bing tlieir  faces,  arms,  legs,  &c.  with  dry  sand,  as  in 
ihc  evening  before,  after  which  another  kid  was 
butchered  and  cooked,  of  which  they  gave  us  the  en- 
trails. Having  finished  their  repast,  they  btgan  to 
saddle  and  load  their  camels,  and  in  a  few  moments 
after,  my  unfortunate  fellow  captives  were  com- 
manded to  come  forth  to  pursue  their  journey — I  too 
(as  if  ignorant  of  the  intentions  of  my  master)  obey- 
ed the  summons  ;  but  no  sooner  had  I  stepped 
without  the  tent,  than  the  barbarian  forced  me  back 
with  ihe  britch  tf  his  musket  I 

The  fears  that  1  had  entertained  of  being  seperat- 
od  from  my  poor  unfortunate  husband,  and  his 
■wretched  fellow-captives,  were  now  realized — it 
would  be  impossible  for  me  to  describe  my  feelings 
at  this  moment,  and  the  reader  can  have  but  a  fain'*, 
conception  of  them  1  1  begged  that  I  might  be  in- 
dulged with  the  iiber-ty  of  exchanging  a  few  words 
with  my  husband,  previous  to  his  departure :  but 
•ven  this  privilege  was  denied  m« ;  in  a  fit  of  des- 
pair I  threw  myself  upon  a  mat,  where  I  remained 
in  a  state  of  insensibility  until  the  captives  were  ftir 
out  of  sight.  As  soon  a;»  I  had  recovered  sufficient- 
ly to  support  myself  on  my  knees,  I  sent  up  a  prayer 
to  Heaven,  implor'iDg  her  protection  in  my  then  still 
more  wretched  situtitien.  I  then  laid  myseil  down  to 


liest,  hm  could  not  sleep.  My  mind,  which  hau 
been  hitherto  remarkably  strong,  and  supported  me 
through  ail  my  trials,  disiresses  and  f  rffcrincis,  and 
in  a  great  measure  had  enabled  me  o  encourage 
and  keep  up  the  spirits  of  ray  frequently  despairing 
feilo^v^  captives,  could  hardly  sustain  me  :  My  sud* 
den  change  of  situation  seemed  to  have  relaxed  the 
■^«?ery  springs  of  my  souU  and  all  my  faculties  fell  in- 
t^  the  wildest  confusion. 

Soon  after  the  departure  of  the  other  captives,  I 
was  again  visited  by  a  motley  group  of  the  natives, 
who  came  merely  to  satisfy  their  curiosity,  when  the 
children  were  again  encouraged  by  their  parents  to 
insult  me  by  spitting  and  throwing  sand  in  my  face— . 
this  was  more  than  I  could  bear  ;  tears  of  anguish, 
which  I  had  not  the  power  to  controul,  now  gushed 
from  my  eyes ;  and  my  almost  bursting  heart  vent- 
ed itself  in  bitter  groans  of  despair  I  It  soon  appear- 
ed, however,  that  the  abuse  offered  me  by  these  un- 
Reeling  wretches,  was  not  countenanced  by  my  mas. 
^r ;  for  on   his  arrival,  viewing  the  sad   coidilion 
Vnat  I  was  in,  with  my  eyes  and  mouih  filled  whh 
sand,  he  became  greatly  enraged  and  beat  the  vile 
authors  of  it   unmercifully — and,  indeed,  the  severe 
ehastisement  which  they  then  received,  had  a  lasting 
and  very  happy  effect ;  for  from  this  time,   until  the 
period  of  my  redemption,  I  was  not  once  again    in- 
sulted in  this  way* 

My  master  having  retired,   soon  returned  with  a 
Itowl  of  camcl^s  milk,  and  another  of  the  6our  siiti*' 

—51  — 

lar  to  that  with  which  I  had  been  before  presCDted  ^ 
and  of  which  1  made  a  very  delicious  meal,  and 
returned  thanks  to  God  for  the  wholesome  repast. 
in  two  hours  after  I  was  again  visited  by  my  master, 
accompaiued  by  a  very  aged,  and  the  most  respect- 
able looking  Arab  that  i  had  seen ;  who,  having 
seated  himself  on  a  mat,  accosted  me  with  "  how  de 
do  Chiistiano."  I  was  indeed  very  much  surprised 
to  hear  a  language  that  I  could  understand,  and  was 
much  pleased  with  the  prospect  of  having  found  one 
who,  as  an  interpreter,  might  be  of  essential  service 
to  me.  The  old  man  could  speak  but  very  broken 
English,  but  with  the  assistance  of  my  partial  know- 
ledge of  the  Arabic  (which  I  had  obtained  duiing 
my  captivity)  we  could  convi^rie  with  each  other 
tolerable  wtL^  lie  informed  me  that  he  belonged 
<o  a  village  much  larger  than  the  one  in  which  my 
fntxavri' ««^  Hivj  cr,c::;.:ped,  and  many  miles  nearei* 
MoiGCcasii — that  he  had  tibia  ned  his  partial  know- 
\jd^t  of  die  Erglish  lauijua^e  by  having  once  in  his 
T^oss'w'Sbion  thrtc  cr  four  Engilab  captives,  who  with 
a  number  of  their  cjai  tiymen,  had  bfcii  shipwreck- 
Ld  on  the  coast.  That  they  were  vvith  hrrn  «ib&ut 
two  years,  when,  with  the  exception  of  one  that  died, 
ihey  were  redeemed  by  the  Suhan's  friend  at  Mo- 

The  old  man  was  very  inquisitive  and  arisious  to 
learn  of  what  vhe  ship  s  cargo  was  composed,  and 
whether  there  was  much  cash  on  board;  how  many 
days  we  had  bocn  travelling  siuco  we  quit  the  wreck; 

and  on  what  part  the  coast  we  were  \rrecked~  hew 
•fiany  persons  there  were  on  board,  and  if  the  whole 
•f  our  number  were  captured.  To  these  questions 
5 gave  corrcLct  answers,  which  were  interpreted  to 
my  master. 

I  embraced  this  opportunity  to  ascertain,  if  possi* 
lie,  what  would  probably  be  the  fate  of  my  husband 
and  his  unfortunat®  companions  ;  and  whether  there 
Was  any  prospect  of  their  gaining  their  liberty  again 
—  and  what  were  my  master's  intentions  with  regard 
to  myselt  Agreeable  to  my  request  these  e:  qui- 
fies  were  made,  and  my  master's  replies  interpreted 
to  me  by  ihe  eld  man  ;  which  3pp»izcd  me,  that 
the  prospect  of  my  companions  being  soon  redeem- 
f  d  was  very  great,  as  their  masters  resided  much 
nearer  the  Sulian's.dom.iiuonSj  when  ^information  of 
their  captivity  might  be  easily  conveyed  ;  and  as 
soon  as  the  SuUan  received  the  intbrmatir^.  h^ 
would  im-mediately  communicate  it  to  his  friend 
(the  Bntish  Consul)  at  Swear.'h  (^'ogado^e)  who 
would  dispatch  a  person  with  cash,  to  redeem  them* 
That  as  regarded  myself,  it  was  ihe  intertion  of  my 
mastei'  to  retain  me  in  iiis  own  family,  uniii  he  could 
find  an  opportunity  to  dispose  of  jne  at  a  gcf  d  piice, 
to  some  one  sf  his  countrymen  bound  to  Swearah. 
I  suggested  to  the  old  man  the  improbability  of  my 
living  long  if  not  more  tenderly  treated,  and  more 
bountifully  supplied  with  wholesome  foe^/d  ;  which^ 
l&eing  interpreted  to  my  master.  I  was  assured,  that 
ill  behaved  myself  well,  1  should  have  my  liberty  to 

walk  about  the  villaje  wh-ere  I  pleased,  and  shouV 
always  have  my  share  of  food. 

As  1  had  slways  been  under  serious  apprehen- 
sion (if  being  deprived  of  my  bible  (which  was  now 
riy  only  remaining  companion)  or  that  I  sliould  be 
compelled  to  engage  with  them  in  their  idolatrous 
worship  of  ike  Supreme  Being,  I  hinted  to  my  in- 
terpreter, that  although  we  believed  in  one  and  the 
same  Grand  Spiiit,  yet  there  was  a  difference  in  our 
mode  of  worshipping  Him  :  ar.d  that  v/hile  they 
peaceably  pursued  their'Sj  !  hoped  that  I  siiould  no^ 
be  disturbed  while  engai^ed  in  mii^e  ;  and,  what  w»s 
c  still  greater  confsideraiicn  with  me,  I  hoped  tJiat 
rore  might  be  permitted  lo  take  from  me  my  biblei 
but  that  1  might  be  allowed  to  devote  a  few  hours 
each  day  in  perusing  it.  To  this  my  master  assent- 
ed^  on  condition  that  I  would  never  worship  or  pe- 
rirs^  ih©  hor»k  i}}  hi*  prtftnce,  or  that  of  any  of  his 
faniily  ;  f:)r  as  they  believed  Christians,  fcnta  (bad) 
he  could  not  answer  for  the  conduct  tif  his  family  if 
tliey  f 'Ui.d   me  thus  engaged. 

My  master  having  i'lformcd  me  that  tlie  tent  io 
v»hich  i  was  then  coi.fiiicd,  was  allotted  me  as  my 
place  of  tesidencc  until  he  should  have  an  opportu- 
nity to  dispose  of  m.e,  new  granted  me  liberty  to 
i\'alk  about  the  village  where  I  pleased,  hinting  at 
the  same  time,  that  an  attempt  on  my  part  to  escape 
from  him,  would  be  punished  *vith  instant  dejkth  I  aH 
ihis  was  interpreted  to  me  by  the  old  Arab,  whoi, 
lTa\  ing  promised  rac  that  if  he  should  meet   wuh  an: 

—5  4— 

Qpporiuniiv  to  send  to  Swearah,  he  would  in  form 
the  Sultan  of  my  situation,  with  my  master  withdrew, 
and  left  me  to  return  thanks  to  Him,  by  whose  kind 
interposilion  I  was  so  fortunate  as  to  meet  with  onej 
in  that  barren  and  inhospitable  desert,  who  was  not 
only  enabled  to  acquaint  me  cf  what  would  probably 
be  the  uhimate  fate  of  my  poor  husband,  hut  what 
were  the  views  of  myxnaster  with  regard  to  myself* 
Being  now  left  entirely  alfiie,  1  embraced  the  op* 
portunitj  to  peruse  more  attentively  the  aacsed  vol- 
ume, which  alone  was  calculated  to  yield  consola- 
tion  to  a  miserable  captive  like  mysdf  5  a  volume 
calculated  not  only  to  make  me  wise  unto  salvation, 
but  calculated  also  to  convey  the  most  affecting 
views,  and  awaken  the  swbiinr)cst  sensibilities  on  a 
thousand  topics;  &  vo'umc  full  of  cntejlaiiimefa  as 
well  as  ins'.ructionj  composed  by  a  grea-t  diversity  of 
aUthcCS,  and  a}}  ni  th^m  divniirjy  (cUjjni.  rTatiiiinilS 
1  see  them  one  after  another  (in  this  momnt  as  in 
that  of  my  tribulation)  preseiuing  for  nr.y  improve- 
menc,  their  respective  writings  wih  an  aspect  of 
Jigaiiy  and  sweetness,  combining,  the  dignity  of, 
iiuth,  and  the  sweetness  cf  beiievcknc*  ;  both  de- 
rived from  Him  who  inspired  ihem  lo  be  the  teach- 
ers of  mankind.  Methinks  1  hear  them  severally 
addressing  me  in  the  name  of  God,  with  an  authori- 
ty that  can  only  be  equalled  with  their  miWness,  on 
subjects  the  grandest  and  most  important .  What 
book  is  there  but  the  bible,  that  contains  so  much  to 
«nform,  impresft*  and  delight  reflecting  minds,  laid 

logether  in  a  njanner  so  extensively  atfepted  to  their 
various  turns  of  understanding,  tasie  arid  temper  ^ 
which  people  of  diffeient  and  distant  countries, 
through  a  long  succession  of  ages,  have  held  in  so 
much  reverence,  and  read  with  so  much  advantage  j 
where  it  is  so  difficult  to  determine,  which  arc  more 
distinguished  ease  and  simplicity,  or  sublimity  «nd 
force,  but  where  all  are  so  beautifully  united ;  where 
there  is  so  litllc  to  dis-^ourage  the  weakest  spirit? 
if  docile,  and  so  much  to  gratify  the  strongest,  if 
candid— where  the  frailties,  disorders  and  distresses 
of  human  nature,  are  all  so  feelingly  laid  open  and 
:he  remedies,  which  Heaven  provided  had  so  ten- 
derly applied. 

And  ought  I  to  omit  to  declare  that  although 
misfortune  hsd  placed  me  in  the  hands  of  a  barba- 
rous people,  although  scperaied  from  gvery  chris- 
tian friend,  and  experiencing:  all  the  hardships  and 
privations  peculiar  to  those  who  are  so  unfortunate 
as  to  lall  into  the  hands  of  a  merciless  race  ;  yet, 
from  this  sacred  vclume,  I  derived  more  comfort 
more  sweet  consolanon,  secluded  as  !  was  from  thiB 
civilized  world,  than  the  most  fashionable  amuse* 
menis  of  the  most  populous  cities  in  Europe,  cuu'd 
have  afforded  mc  !  Ah,  ye  fair  ones  of  Britain,  who 
doat  on  the  parade  of  public  assemblies,  and  sail  a- 
long  in  the  fnll  blown  pride  of  fashionable  attire,  of 
which  the  least  appendage  or  circumstance  must 
not  be  discomposed  ;  thoughtless  of  human  woe  : 
nscnsible  to  the  ead  condiiio.-i  tf  those   like  myself 

piiiing  in  many  a  solitary  resideoce  ofv^'ant—ye  gau*" 
dy  fiwUerers,  '*  wiib  hard  hearts  under  soft  i^ai- 
nient,"  how  much  more  briliiiuit  and  beauiiful 
would  ye  appear  in  the  eyes  of  sairts  and  ar.gelS) 
Vftrc  yow  to  employ  your  leisure  hoins  thus  devoted  ^ 
to  the  attaining  a  knowledge  of  that  sacred  scripture 
by  which  alone  ye  can  expcci  lo  enjoy  eterial  life* 
J  blu&h  for  man)  of  my  country  women  possessed  of 
understanding  who  h.ive  never  yet  learned  its  no- 
blest and  happiest  use  j  in  whose  ears  the  circulated 
whisper  of  a  well  dressed  crowd  admiring  their  ap- 
pearance, is  -d  moie  grateful  sound  than  the  praise  of 
the  ever  living  Jehovah!  How  much  more  praise 
worthy  wouid  it  bc,\ve!e  it  your  object  only  to  ap- 
pear beautifal  in  the  eye  of  God  ;  to  be  beloved  by 
the  Monarch  of  the  Universe !  to  be  r.dmiited,  if  I 
may  use  the  phrase,  as  so  many  fair  and  shining 
pillars  into  her  temple  belcw  ;  while  he  contcm- 
platei  each  wi'.n  a  pleasing  aspect,  and  purposes  to; 
remove  them  in  due  time  to  his  sanctuary  on  higb^ 
v?here  they  ihall  remain  his  everlasting  delight,  as 
A?ell  as  the  never  ceasing  aduiiration  of  surrounding 
oherubims.  Great  Creator  I  what  can  equal  such 
axailation  and  felicity  ?  And  can  any  of  you,  my 
fair  readers,  be  so  destitute  ©f  every  nGbler  senvi- 
Oient  as  not  to  aspire  after  privileges  like  ihese  !  Vd- 
aaoved  by  such  ideas,  can  you  turn  away  with  impa- 
tience, and  run  to  scenes  of  dress  and  show  with 
the  same  Utile  inglorious  passions  as  before  ;  pre- 
ferrirg  to  the  approbation  of  the  Eternal  ihe  slight 

est  regards  iTrom  the  silliest  mortrls  r  G^.  thou 
senseless  creature,  and  boast  of  jjcing  admi.ed  by 
the  butterflies  of  a  day  ;  see  what  they  will  do  tor 
thee,  when  He,  whose  favor  ihou  negieclest,  and  for 
such  shall  cause  thy  "  beauty  Co  consume  like 
a  moth,"  and  thy  heart  to  sink  within  thee  like  a 
stone.  Imigination  sh»idders  at  the  thought  of  that 
day,  when  thou  shalt  ei>ter,  trenabling-,  forsaken  and 
forlorn,  those  dismal  regions  wiiich  the  voice  of  adu- 
lation cannot  reach,  and  nothing  shall  be  heard  but 
sounds  of  reproach  and  bi-H'  phemy  and  wo  ;  where, 
stript  of  every  ornament  that  now  decks  thy  body, 
and  suipt  of  lh?l  body  itself,  thy  mind  must  appear 
without  shelter  or  covering,  all  deformed  and 
ghastly,  mangled  with  tht  wounds  of  despairing 
guilt,  an<i  distorted  by  tin-  violence  of  envenomed 
passions,  while  demons  sh^il  mock  at  thy  misery. 
May  the  Almighty  Redeemer  b«  pleased  to  save 
us  all  from  a  doom  so  dreadfiil  I  And  my  fair  read* 
ers  would  you  concur  to  prevent  it  ?  Begin  with 
restraining  the  ]o\e  of  ornament  ;  or  ravh^r,  turn 
that  dangerous  affection  into  a  higher  channel)  and 
let  it  flow  :  it  will  then  become  safe,  useful,  noble. 
Here  yoii  will  have  scope  for  the  largest  fancy.  To 
the  -odorning  of  your  minds  Vi^e  wish  you  to  set  no 
bouads.  In  dressing  the  soul  for  the  company  oi 
saintsi  of  angels,  of  God  himself,  you  cannot  em- 
ploy loo  much  time  or  thought.  In  a  word,  all  the 
best  things  in  the  creation,  together  with  the  Creator 
K     ^ 

bimself,  concur  in  loving  and  honoring  a  beauteous 

But,  to  return  — 

The  liberty  granted  me  by  my  master,  to  peruse 
the  sacred  scriirurcs,  I  faithfully  improved  at  this 
tinie.  I  perused  the  whole  book  of  Job,  and  derived 
much  consolation  therefrom,  after  which,  to  prevent 
its  destruction  by  the  natives,  I  buried  ray  inestima- 
ble treasure  in  the  sand,  and,  unaccompanied  by  any 
one,  I  was  now  permitted  to  walk  about  the  village, 
as  ifi  vras  tetmed,  which  was  composed  of  no  more 
than  ten  or  twelve  wretched  tents,  containing  from 
&ix  to  ten  persons  each.  As  a  moie  minute  desciip- 
Uon  of  the  inbabiiants — their  employment,  dicss, 
habits,  customs,  &c.  may  be  gratifying  Vo  some  of  my 
readers,  1  will  here  record  them  as  correctly  as  my 
recollection  will  enable  me,  from  observations  made 
during  my  captivity. 

The  Arabs  are  of  a  tawny  complexion;  and  when 
full  grown,  are  -generally  from  five  to  six  feet  in 
height,  with  black  sparkling  eyes,  high  cheek  bones 
snd  thin  lips— their  Jiair  is  bisck*  long  and  very 
coarse,  and  being  occasionally  clipped  by  the  men, 
fney  leave  it  slicking  cut  in  every  dirfction,  fiora 
-.heir  head,  uhicb  i;ives  them  a  veiy  savage  appear- 
ance— their  beards  they  peimit  to  grow  to  the 
length  of  seven  or  eight  inches.  The  oidy  clothing 
ihey  is  a  piece  of  coars-.e  cloth  ef  their  own 
:r>anufaclure,  wliich  they  tie  round  their  vaslco,  and 
'Ahich  « xtends  to  their  knees-     The  wcmen  are  in 

fpeneral  uol  so  tall  as  the  men,  but  in  other  respects 
resemble  them  ttry  much.  They  appear  in  their 
natures  as  if  created  expressly  for  the  country  which 
they  inhabit,  as  no  human  beings  can  endure  thirst* 
bujiger,  and  faiigues  better  than  they.  When  they 
rise  in  the  morning,  their  first  employment  is  to 
milk,  their  canjels,  aiier  which  the  whole  village, 
youn.^  and  old.  (the  women  excepted)  assemble  to 
attend  prayers  and  their  other  religious  devotions* 
which  they  perform  in  the  following  manner  ;  they 
fiist  strip  themselves  nearly  naked,  and  then  wiih 
dry  sand  rub  every  pai  t  of  their  bodies,  after  which, 
btTiding  their  bodies  almost  to  the  ground,  they  cry 
aloud  ♦'  Allah  Hookiber"— «  Aliah-Sheda  Mabam- 
med  1"— at  nii^ht  before  retiring  to  rest  they  again 
•sscmble  to  worsliip  in  the  same  manner. 

The  cloth  with  which  the  Arabs  cover  their  lenls< 
they  manufacuire  ©ut  of  camel's  hair,  which  work  is 
perfo:  med  by  the  women,  in  the  following  manner  : 
having  first  spun  the  hair  into  thread,  by  means  mt 
a  haiul  spindle,  and- it  havinggone  through  the  •pe* 
ration  of  doubling  and  twisting,  they  drive  into  the 
ground  two  rows  of  pegs  placing  them  about  three 
feet  apart  ;  the  warp  is  tbert  attached  to  the  pegs 
and  the  filling  is  then  carried  by  a  shuttle  over  one 
thread  of  liie  warp  and  under  another,  the  women, 
in  the  mean  time  beating  up  the  threads  with  a  flat 
pitce  Oi  siick.  Every  tent  is  occupied  by  a  §©pe« 
'  le  faniily,  who  have  no  other  furniture  but  a  mat, 
.l.ich  serves  ihcm  for  a  bed,  a  small  brasa   kettle 

in  wtricli  they  sometimes  boil  their  provision,  a  tal- 
labash  to  hold  thtir  milk,  and  a  wooden  trough  iti 
which  they  wat€T  their  camels. 

If  the  Arabs  are  provided  v^ith  water,  they  never 
fail  to  wash  before  they  eat,  but  in  the  choice  of  ihcit 
food,  they  are  less  particular*,  esteeming  a  mess  of 
roasted  snails  preferable  to  any  other  dish.  Thcif 
principal  food,  when  encamped,  is  camel's  milk,  and 
occasionally  they  feast  themselves  on  a  kid,  but  never 
on  a  camel,  unless  in  ease  of  real  necessity,  or  when 
they  have  becQme  too  old  to  travel.  Frcquentlyi 
however,  in  travelling  the  desert,  the  Arabs  have 
been  driven  by  hunger  to  such  cxtrcnniiics,  as  to  de- 
voiiT  animals  and  insects  of  any  kind  in  a  state  of  pu- 

The  Arabs  have  a  plurality  of  wives  to  whom  the^ 
are  very  scTere  and  cruel,  exercising  as  much  au- 
thority overthtoi  as  over  their  shivcs,  ard  compel- 
ling them  to  perform  the  meanest  drudgeiy — their 
husbands  consider  them  as  their  infcjiors,  as  b'-ings 
without  souls,  and  will  not  permit  ihtni  to  join  in 
their  devotions.  W  hile  engaged  in  weaving  they  carrjr 
HheiT  ififant  children  on  thc:»'  hacks,  which  are  se- 
tured  by  a  fold  of  a  piece  rf  CiOih,  which  they  wear 
fcr  the  purpose  over  iheir  shoij'ders  ;  by  beting  k#pt 
constantly  at  work,  the)  become  very  filthy  in  their 
^rson.s  and  are  covered  with  vernfjin. 

The  children  of  the  Arabs  tre  tauj;ht  to  read  and 
write,  and  every  f*aiily  has  a  teacher /or  that  pur- 
j^oftC)  bui  ibr  paper  they  substitute  a  pieee  of  smooth 


board  aboui  two  feet  square,  and  on  these  they  are 
taught  to  make  Arabic  characiers  with  shai  ;<ened 
reeds — they  are  easily  instructed  to  read  the  Kvian, 
agiceable  to  their  Mahometan  faith,  and  are  taught 
to  wiiie  verses  therefrom.  O,  what  a  pity  it  is  that 
they  are  not  taught  the  superior  excellence  of  the 
Christian  religion,  and  to  worship  the  blessed  Je- 
3US,  instead  of  the  impure  and  idolatrous  worship  of 
objects  prescribed  by  Mahomet — weep,  O  my  soul, 
over  the  foriorne  state  of  the  benighted  heathen ! 
Oh!  that  all  who  peruse  this  narrative  would  joia 
in  their  fervent  rcquesis  to  God,  with  whom  all 
things  are  possible,  that  these  deluded  people  maf 
3oon  be  brought  to  worship  the  true  and  only  JesuSi 
and  X9  drink  freely  of  the  waters  of  salvation  I 

Although  my  master  had  promised  me  that  ¥ 
should  receive  a  plentiful  supply  of  food,  1  soon 
founpthat  he  was  by  no  means  in  a  situation  to  ful- 
fil hi»  promise  ;  for  with  the  exception  of  the  small 
quantity  of  milk  that  the  cam^els  yielded,  I  found 
that  they  had  nothing  themselves  to  subsist  on.  for 
the  most  part  of  the  lime  but  ground  nuts  and  a  few 
snails,  which  they  found  in  the  sand.  Each  family 
possess  two  or  three  kids,  but  they  will  sooner  starve  " 
than  kill  them,  unless  it  is  on  particular  occasions— i 
There  were  two  wells  of  tolerable  good  water  in  the 
neighborhood,  which  was  the  only  convenience  that 
the  misc^rable  village  could  boast  of. 

While  s<-me   of  the    wives    and    children  of  the 
Arabs  viewed  me  with  sconikful  eyes,  frequently  ut- 

nrifif;.  the  word  «  fonta**  bad,  others  appeared  raone 
amicably  disposed,  and  treated  me  with  compassion. 
Thry  all  however  appeared  to  be  anxious  ihat  I 
should  be  taught  to  labor  like  themselves,  and  for 
t%e  first  week  attempted  to  instruct  me  how  to 
weave  after  their  manner — but  as  1  was  sure  that 
if  they  taught  me  to  be  useful  to  them  in  this  way, 
I  should  be  allowed  but  little  time  to  rest  or  to 
peruse  my  bible,  I  did  net  prove  so  tractable  as 
they  expected  to  find  me,  and  they  finally  gave  up 
^1  hopes  of  rendering  me  serviceable  to  tbem  in  this 
"Way.  I  was  however  compelled  every  night  aiid 
SRorning  to  drive  off  the  camelS)  to  milk,  a^.d  to 
devote  two  or  three  hours  each  day  in  coUecling 
snails  and  groind  nuts. 

After  performing  the  duty  allotted  me,  I  usually 
retired  to  my  tent,  and  spent  the  remainder  ot  the 
4ay  in  serious  meditation,  and  in  perusing  the  sacred 
scriptures.  During  my  captivity  1  read  my  bible, 
the  Old  and  New  Tcbtament.  five  limes  through 
^rom  the  begiiining  to  the  end.  O  it  is  impossible 
f«r  me  to  bestow  too  much  praise  on  this  sacred 
book — the  consolation  that  1  derived  therefrom  in 
the  hour  of  tribulation  was  very  great  indeed  ;  it 
was  that  and  that  alone  that  now  enables  me  to  say, 
*  b  ^  sed  be  the  hour  ihat  I  became  a  convert  in  thfe 
land  of  the  heathen  1'*  O,  how  piecioas,  how  ex» 
aeedingly  valuable  is  the  word  of  God  !  how  exceed- 
ingly  precious,  is  tiie  religion  i-f  Jesus — how  unlike 
ftjat  of  Mahomet)  how  different    from  any  whicl^ 


Vhe  carnal  heart  can  invGnt!— O,  it  Waa  this  ihat  sus^ 
tained  me  in  the  hour  of  affliction,  in  the  day  of  my 

Five  moiiths  having  nearly  passed  since  my  sep» 
eration  from  my  poor  husband  and  his  unfortunate 
companions,  and  at  the  moment  of  despairing  of  be- 
ing ever  redeemed  from  cruel  bondage,  I  was  one 
morning  verv  early  aroused  from  my  slumbers  by  ih^ 
hoarse  voice  of  my  master,  commanding  me  to 
come  forth  ;  the  summons  1  instantly  obeyed  ;  but 
my  surprize  mar  be  belter  imagined  than  express^ 
ed,  when  on  reaching  the  door  of  my  tent  I  was  pre. 
seated  by  my  master  with  a  letter  directed  to  me 
and  which  I  immediately  recognized  to  be  the  hancl 
writing  of  my  hushand  I  With  my  mafctcr  was  a 
stranger  mounted  on  a  mule,  and  although  of  a  taw- 
ny  complexion,  had  otherwise  the  savage  ap- 
jiearance  of  an  Arab.  As  soon  as  I  came  wiihin 
view  of  him,  with  a  smile  upon  his  countenance,  he 
accosted  me  with  »*  how-de-tlo  Chrisiiano, "  that  hd 
•■^as  the  messenger  of  pleading  news,  I  did  not 
doubt.  I  broke  open  the  letter,  and  with  emotions 
i-rat  I  oannot  describe,  read  as  follows  j— 

Mogadore,  Dec,  10,  1813. 
My  dear  Charlotte— 

This  will  inform  you  that  1  am  no  IcBger  a  slav^ 
—by  the  blessings  of  God,  I  once  more  enjoj  my 
liberty — I  was  braught  to  this  place  with  three  of 
t»iy  crew  by  the  Arabs,  a  few  days  since,  and  hu^ 
txwireJy  redeemed  ooi  «f  their  hands  by  our  «xceV^ 

lent  consul  (Mr.  Willshire)  who  resides  here,  f 
have  informed  kim  of  your  situation,  and  he  has 
kindly  offered  me  his  assistance  in  effecting  your 
redemption  and  restoring  you  to  liberty — the  bear- 
er ct  this  letter  (should  he  be  so  fortunate  as  to  find 
you)  is  a  man  in  whom  you  may  place  the  utmost 
reliance,  and  who  will  conduct  you  in  safety  to  this 
j»lace,  should  your  master  be  pleased  to  comply  with 
the  proposals  of  Mr.  Willshire,  to  whom  he  has  di- 
rected a  letter  written  in  Arabic,  offering  seven  hun- 
dred dollars  for  your  redemption,  provided  he  con- 
veys you  in  safety  to  this  place. 

I  am  affectionately  yours,  &c. 


Having  finished  this  letter,  so  great  was  my  joy, 
that  I  could  not  refrain  from  shedding  tears,  and 
it  was  some  time  before  1  could  become  sufficiently 
composed  as  to  beg  of  my  master  permission  to  re- 
tire to  my  tent,  wher6,  on  my  bended  knees,  1  might 
return  thanks  to  an  all- wise  and  beneficent  Creator, 
through  whose  goodness  there  was  now  a  prospect 
of  my  being  once  more  reatored  to  my  husbaud  and 

The  terms  offered  my  master  being  such  a.s  he 
Was  pleased  to  accept  of,  the  necessary  preparations 
were  immediately  made  for  our  departure,  and  the 
morning  ensuing^  my  master  and  myself  being 
mounted  on  a  camel  each,  accompanied  by  the 
Moor  (for  such  he  proved  to  be)  mounted  on  his 
!liule)  set  out  for  Mogadore,  a  distance  of  more  thstn 

fieven  hundred  miles.  We  were  nearly  twenty  days 
in  performing  the  journey,  the  greatest  part  of  the 
way  being;  a  sandy  desert,  yielding  little  for  man  or 

Were  I  to  record  the  occurrences  of  each  day 
while  on  our  journey,  it  would  swell  a  Tolume  to 
too  great  an  extent.  I  would  rather  con6ne  myselj 
t©  a  few  particulars  which  I  esteem  of  the  most  im- 
portance to  the  reader,  and  which  is  calculated  to 
jive  him  a  correct  idea  of  m?  situation,  until  tho 
flay  of  my  redemption — and  that  of  the  country 
through  which  we  passed,  My  master  loaded  the 
camels  with  as  much  proviiion  as  they  oould  tf^ell 
carry,  which,  with  the  little  they  were  enabled  to 
collect  on  the  way,  served  us  until  we  reached  a 
more  fertile  country.  My  master  seemed  disposed 
to  treat  me  with  more  humanity  than  ever,  and  of 
whatever  provision  was  obtained,  if  there  was  scarce- 
ly sufficient  for  a  moderate  meal  for  one,  I  was 
sure  to  receive  one  half  j  nor  was  time  refused  me 
each  morning  btfore  we  set  teuton  our  journey,  to 
return  thanks  to  Heaven  for  the  protection  afforded 
me  through  the  night,  and  to  read  a  chapter  ifi  my 

After  travelling  ten  days,  we  came  to  the  country 
inhabited  by  the  Moors,  and  passed  several  walled 
villages,  enclosing  some  well  stocked  gardens.  The 
further  wfi  proceeded  on  our  journey,  the  more  the 
fertility  of  the  country  seemed  to  increase.  Wc 
ptssed  large  fields  oi  Indian  coro  and  barley^  and 


garxJens  filled  with  most  kinds  of  vegetables,  and  tiie 
surrounding  country  presented  beautjful  grcves  oC 
date  fig,  pomegranate  and  orange  trees.  The  A- 
rtbs  and  Moors  not  being  on  the  most  friendly  tcrms) 
and  the  latter  being  as  great  enemies  to  Christianity 
as  the  former,  we  might  have  starved  amidst  plenty., 
had  we  not  fortunately  a  Motr  for  a  companion, 
vjthout  whose  aid  we  could  not  have  gained  admit- 
tance into  any  ef  their  villages. 

In  fifteen  days  from  that  on  whicli  we  left  the  vil* 
fcge  of  my  master,  we  entered  the  dominions  of  the 
Emperor  of  Morocco^  and  two  day»-  after  arrived  at 
Santa  Cruz,  the  most  considerable  frontier  town  of 
Ihe  Emperor's  dominions.  We  were  met  at  the  en* 
trance  of  the  town  by  a  large  body  of  Moors  of  al4 
ranks  and  ages,  and  while  some  of  the  most  respec* 
table  appeared  disposed  to  protect  me,  fiom  another 
4llass  1  received  every  insult  that  they  eould  devise 
ineans  to  bestow  upon  me.  My  master,  on  attempt- 
ing to  defend  me  from  the  outragje  of  these  merciless 
vretches,  received  but  little  belter  treatment  hinr- 
S«lf,  as  the  Moor*  harbor  the  most  contemptible  opi* 
»ion  of  the  Arabs  of  the  interlori  My  master, 
lifowever  gained  permission  of  the  Governor,  to  tar* 
ry  in  the  town  until  the  ensnirg  morning  and 
promised  us  his  protection.  I  was  conveyed  to  a 
small  dirty  hut,  situated  at  the  extreme  part  of  the 
^wn,  and  therein  barricadoed  as  securely  as  if  I 
had  been  ©ne  of  their  greatest  and  most  formidable 
enemies   in  existence,    f  ought  m>%  however  fail  tc 

— S7— 

aeation,  that  I  T7as  here  for  the  first  time  siDCre  I 
became  a  captive,  pleniiiully  suppiitti  with  ^cod  an^ 
"Wholesome  provision  in  abunoiance  The  town  a- 
Njunded  wiih  fish  of  a  most  excellent  quality,  which 
they  understood  the  ciH)king  of  equal  to  Europeans, 
and  of  which  mey  allowed  me  more  than  1  could  pos. 
sibly  eat ;  with  an  equal  paoportion  of  sweet  bailey 
bread.  Although  1  felt  grateful  for  such  liberantyj 
yet  1  could  not  but  view  its  authors  as  nothing  more 
lh:.<  i.»b;i  uments  in  the  hands  of  the  Supreme  Being 
«nv)loyedto  alleviate  the  sufferings  of  one  of  his  most 
^itioruaate  creatures,  vvho  dt»y  and  nigiit  had  un- 
cc.  siogly  solicited  his  protection.  O,  1  have  infi- 
Dite  reason  to  confess  my  obligation  to  that  Almigh- 
;y  rower  who  so  wonderfully  presei^ed  «nd  sup» 
poi.ed  me  in  the  day  of  bondage. — ^.!ay  my  future 
iifc  cviijce  my  gratitude,  and  every  thought  be 
brought  into  subjection  to  the  Father  of  spirus*— 
surely  *♦  a  sots  I  redeemed  demands  a  life  of  praise." 
Early  the  ensuing  morning  we  quit  Santa  Cruz, 
and  proceeded  on  our  journey,  travelling  through^ 
beautiful  cultivated  country.  The  sea  on  »iur  Icf^ 
•uvcrcd  with  boats  of  various  sixes,  was  full  in  vicw« 
Aljout  3  o'clock  the  day  ioliowing,  havn^g  leacL^ 
Ihe  summit  of  a  mountain  which  we  had  been  since 
inuTning  ascending,  the  Msvr  suddenly  cried  out^ 
pointing  to  ll^  east.  *'  see,  see  Mogadore  i"— the 
l^wn  was  indeed  iair  in  view,  and  did  nol  appeac 
to  be  more   than  iirtecD  or    ei^^lneen  mile*  d^ufil 

The  harbor  was  foon  in  view,  and  Ihe  flags  of 
ships  of  different  nations  fioa'ioE^  iVom  their  niizen 
tops  v^iJis  vi  wed  by  me  with  i'  ;!;f  ujultd  pleasure— 
il  is  in>pvjssible  tj  Siate  nriy  iVeiiLi^s  at  this  moment 
on  the  reflection  that  in  a  few  houis  I  should  in  all 
probahJiity  be  enabled  to  meet  my  hubband^  and  en- 
joying I  hat  liberty  of  which  we  had  been  many 
monihf*  deprivfcd.  1  could  not  fail  to  look  up  to 
heavtn  vvih  adoration,  while  my  heart  swelled  wilh 
indiscribable  sensations  of  graiiiude  and  love,  to  the 
alUwise,  all  powerful,  and  ever  merciful  God  of  the 
Qnivcrse,  ivlio  had  conducted  me  thiough  so  many 
dreadful  ecenes  of  danger  and  su  fie  ring  I  had^con- 
troUed  the  passions  and  disposed  tlie  hearts  of  the 
barbarous  Arabs  in  my  favor,  and  was  iiualiy  about 
to  restore  me  to  the  at  ihs  of  ray  husband 

As  we  approached  the  citjr  we  were  met  by  con- 
aidt^rabie  bodies  •f  the  Moors,  whom  curiosuy  had 
brought  from  the  ciiy  to  ?iew  a  Chrisiian  female 
slave— mary  appeared  disposed  to  offer  me  insult? 
Iiut  were  prevented  by  those  who  apparently  p«sses- 
aed  a  greater  share  of  pity  for  one  Vvho  was  really 
a  ftpecta^le  of  distress.  At  half  past  three  o'clock 
we  entered  the  city,  and  was  conducted  by  a  com- 
pany of  soldiers  immediately  to  the  house  of  the 
JBiiiish  Ccnsul  Mr.  Wiilshire  met  us  at  the  door, 
andhad  this  truly  benevolent  and  humane  man  be^^n 
my  own  brother,  be  Cf;uld  not  have  given  mc  a  more 
welcome  reception — he  actually  shed  tears  of  joy  at 
the  prospect  pf  having  it  soon  in  his   power  to  res- 

tore  me  to  the  arms  of  my  husband,  who  he  inform- 
e<l  me  had  been  impatiently  awaiting  my  arrival, 
and  had  been  daily  at  his  house  to  ascertain  if  any 
information  had  been  received  of  me  since  the  de- 
pariare  of  the  Moor  dispatched  is  quest  of  me. 

The  news  of  my  arrival  soon  i  cached  the  ears 
of  my  husband,  who  with  the  remainder  of  the  cap- 
tives who  fead  been  redeemed  and  had  not  left  the 
country,  hastened  to  the  Consul's  house  to  see  me. 
Happr  meetiig  !  It  was  acme  time  before  my  hus- 
band or  myself  could  exchange  a  syllabi-  with  each 
other— the  joy  which  we  both  felt  in  being  enabled 
to  meet  again  and  under  circumstances  so  different 
from  those  under  which  we  parted,  deprived  us  for 
some  time  of  the  power  of  speech  ;  indeed  if  there 
was  ever  a  moment  in  which  it  became  an  unfortu^ 
natc  people  like  ourselves  to  offer  up  prayers  of 
thanklulness  to  an  adorable  Creator,  for  his  mercy 
and  goodness  in  so  long  protecting  us  during  our 
»any  months  captivity,  and  for  firially  efTecting  our 
redemption  out  of  the  hands  of  the  unmerciful  Arabs, 
tbis  was  the  moment-  It  is  certainly  the  Almighty 
who  is  the  bestower  and  giver  of  all  our  good 
things— all  our  mercies  come  to  us  by  a  divine 
providence  nnd  ordering  ;  not  by  casualty  or  acci« 
ilent — neither  arc  they  of  our  own  procuring  and 
purchasing—it  is  God  who  returns  the  capiivity  of 
Zion.  '*  When  the  Lord  turned  again  the  captivi- 
ty of  Zion,  Wf  were  like  them  that  dream  :  then  was 
^r  mouth  fiilcd  with  laughter,  and  our  toni'ue  witH 

singing.'^Then  said  they  among  the  heathen,  tljre 
Lord  has  done  great  things  for  them.  The  Lord 
hath  done  great  things  for  us  ;  whereof  we  are  glad  '. 
Turn  again  our  captivity,  O  Lord."  Psalm  cxxvi. 
The  very  heathen  acknowledge  the  good  things  be- 
stowed upon  and  done  for  the  church,  to  be  from 
God  ;  and  God's  own  peeple  acknowledged  Him 
for  tlie  mercies  granted,  and  humbly  supplicated 
mercies  from  Him  for  the  future.  It  is  God  who 
gathers  the  outcasts  of  rsrael  :  ft  is  He  who  takes 
away  the  captives  ef  the  mighty,  the  prey  of  the 
terrible  ;  who  conteads  with  them  that  contend  with 
us,  and  saves  our  children.  It  is  God  who  dispens- 
eth  aiid  gathers  again.  Sometimes  God,  in  a  more 
Immediate  and  extraordinary  way  and  manner,  con- 
fers his  blessings  and  mercies  ;  sometimes  in  a  more 
ordinary  and  mediate  way  ;  but  His  providence  is  to 
be  acknowledged  in  all ';  not  one  single  mercy  comes 
to  us,  without  a  commission  from  that  God  by  whom 
aiir  very  hairs  are  numbered. 

Scarcely  any  of  Mr,  Willshire'a  domestics  who 
'Aitnessed  the  happy  meeting  of  myself  and  hus- 
band, could  refrain  from  tears.  The  poor  sailors 
who  had  been  so  fortunate  as  to  obtain  their  liberty 
seemed  really  overjoyed  at  the  prospect  of  my  being 
once  m«»re  restored  lo  the  bosom  of  my  family.— 
Each  seemed  anxious  to  relate  to  m.e  a  narrative  of 
his  sufferings  and  treatment  which  he  received  from 
the  Arabs  from  the  moment  of  our  seperation/  un- 
*\\  that  of  the'r  redemption.     While  some  appeared 

ia  f.ave  been  tieatc<1  with  a  small  degrse  of  feniC/^ 
others  bore  t ho  marks  of  the  most  savage  cruelty 
and  certainly  could  not  have  survived  much  linger 
under  such  suffeiings,  had  they  not  been  providen- 
tiat5y  redeemed  out  of  ihe  hands  of  the  unmerciful 
barbarians.  By  the  account  given  me  by  my  hus- 
band, of  his  deprivations  and  sui?erings  from  the 
time  of  our  seperation,  it  appeared  that  he  had  tared 
no  belter  than  the  rest^tvi^o  days  after  my  scpera* 
tion  from  them,  the  Arabs  reached  ariother  village, 
which  was  the  place  of  residence  oF  three  or  four 
tnore  of  the  conftpany,  and  where  another  seperatioii 
of  the  captives  look  place.  My  husband,  however 
being  no^  •f  this  party,  he  was  still  compelled  to 
travel  on  under  the  most  disagreeable  circumstances/ 
he  became  so  M'eak  and  emaciated,  and  his  facul- 
ties so  rapidly  declined  that  he  could  scarcely  hear  ob 
see,  and  a  vertical  sun  was  so  contiRually  dartiig 
his  beams  so  intensely  upon  him»  that  f«r  the  last 
two  days  of  his  journey  he  could  scarcely  move  one 
foot  before  the  other.  But,  haviag  at  length  sue* 
ceded  in  reaching  the  village  of  bis  master,  by  the 
intercession  of  on«  oi  his  sons  in  my  husband  *s  be- 
half, he  was  treated  with  more  humanity,  until  an 
opportunity  fortunately  presented  in  which  he  was 
enabled  to  forward  a  line  to  Mogadore,  by  a  man 
informing  Mr.  Willshirc  of  his  situation,  as  well 
as  that  of  his  fe!iow  captives.  On  the  receipt  oi 
my  husbaiid's  letter,  that  gentleman,  wno  is  so  re- 
nowned icr  his  humanity,  did  not  spare  a  moment  to 

efiTect  his  redemption,  and  adopted  sucft  meana  as 
were  attended  with  success  ;  and  by  his  means  seves 
more  of  the  unfortunate  captives  obi^ined  their  lib- 
erty, and  returned  with  us  to  England  in  the  same 
ship,  whiGh,_.lhanks  to  the  Supreme  Disposer  ol  all 
events,  they  wer*  enabled  to  do,  after  having  been 
held  in  captivity  for  nearly  six  months,  in  which  they 
had  suffered  hardships  and  trials  seldom  known  to 
human  nature* 

The  hospitable  Mr.  Willshirc  inaisted  on  our  re- 
maining at  his  house,  until  such  time  as  he  could 
]5^rocure  passages  fop  us  to  Europe.  There  indeed 
was  not  an  European  or  white  man  of  any  nation,  in 
the  harbor,  who  did  not  come  to  see  us,  and  who  gcii» 
erousiy  supplied  us  with  such  articles  of  clothing,&c. 
as  we  stood  most  in  need  of  Having  refreshed  our- 
«elves  by  these  e:ood  people's  bounty,  und  meeting 
^ith  so  many  christian  friends  at  this  place,  we  began 
to  feel  new  life,  and  almost  to  think  ourselves  res- 
IDred  to  our  former  strength  and  vigour  ;  though  in 
reality  we  were  still  in  a  most  deplorable  condition* 

In  justice  to  the  Europeans  that  we  found  at  Mo- 
gadorc,  1  must  say  that  we  received  from  them 
Blkrks  of  the  most  tender  interest,  and  the  most 
generous  compassion  ;  I  think  1  can  never  suificient- 
ly  express  the  sense  that  I  shall  ever  entertain  for 
the  Fiiidness  and  humanity  of  Mr.  Wilisliire,  whose 
whole  employment  it  appeared  to  be  fci  several 
days  to  contrive  the  ber.t  me  ns  to  restore  ua  to 
health  aLd  strength.    By  him  1  was  advised  to  baths 

©very  morning,  and  to  confine  myself  to  goat's  milk, 
excepting  a  few  new  laid  eggs,  together  with  med- 
erate  exercise.  After  a  week,  he  allowed  me  to  take 
sorae  light  chicken  broth,  with  a  morsel  of  the  wing. 
By  the  mcaHs  of  this  diet,  my  health  and  strength 
were  in  a  great  measure  restored. 

The  Almighty,  by  whose  will  I  had  probably  ve- 
ry justly  suffered,  was  at  length  pleased  to  deliver 
me  into  the  hands  of  a  beaevolent  man,  whose  kind- 
ness 1  experienced  in  every  instance.  What  would 
^ave  been  our  condition  if  we  had  met  with  a  person 
of  less  sensibility;  who  thinking  he  had  sufficiently 
answered  the  duties  of  his  office  in  redeeming  us  o«t 
of  the  handb  of  the  Arabs,  had  leit  us  to  shift  for 
ourselves,  with  regard  to  ail  other  necessaries !  I 
can  never  reflect  without  the  mosi  grateful  sensibi- 
lity, on  the  goodsess  and  charity  of  him  whom  1  am 
proud  to  claim  as  my  countryman,  and  who  certain- 
ly is  an  honor  to  the  country  which  gave  him  birth. 
At  our  depurture,  when  my  husband  attempted  t© 
Kiake  acknowledgments  for  his  bounties,  '*  I  mus^ 
^eg  leave  (said  the  Consul)  to  interrupt  you  on  this 
subject;  ycu  have  deserved  every  thing  I  did  for  yoa> 
because  you  needed  it;  and  I  ha ^e  done  nothing 
more  in  your  instance,  than  I  should  have  a  right  to 
expect  myself,  in  the  same  circumstances.  But  my 
consideration  for  your  distress  (conrinued  he)  on^ht 
to  extend  beyond  tht  immediate  exigencies  of  yoav 

Having  continued  at  Mogadore  until  we  had  per* 


fectly  recovered  our  health  and  strength,  a  passage 
wai'  procured  for  us  to  Lircrpool  ;  but  we  did  not 
qttit  the  Barbary  coast,  however,  until  1  had  the 
pleasure  of  cononcmning  with  God.  There  was  a 
amali  English  church  at  Mogadore,  of  which  our 
excellent  friend  Mr.  Wiilshire  was  the  principal 
founder  ;  for  among  the  other  qualifications  of  this 
good  man,  1  am  happy  to  say  that  1  found  him  a  true 
believer  in  the  religion  of  Jesus,  How  sweetly  cal- 
culated were  the  gospel  ©rdinances  here  performed 
to  enliven  the  hearts  of  believers,  surrounded  aa  they 
are  by  a  race  of  idolaters,  on  whom  no  light  of  re- 
velation beams  ;  where  there  are  no  other  sanctua- 
ries— no  communion  tables — no  bread  and  wine  to 
peniind  them,  that  a  Saviour  shed  his  blood  on  Cal- 
vary for  them  !  O  thou  blessed  Redeemer,  for 
poor  lost  sinners,  thou  who  didst  commission  thy 
disciples  of  old  to  preach  the  gospel  to  every  crea^ 
turc  ;  wilt  thou  send  forth  laborers,  make  the  wil- 
derness a  fruitful  field,  and  catise  the  wilderness  to 
blessom  like  the  Rose. 

Having  taken  an  affectionate  leave  of  our  frienda 
St  Mogadore,  on  the  1st  of  February,  1819,  we  were 
in  readiness  to  embaik  for  our  native  country.  Be- 
side my  husband  and  myself,  there  were  six  ottiers 
of  my  husband's  original  crew  who  had  agreed  to 
work  their  passage.  In  forty  days  fr«>m  that  on 
Vrhich  we  bid  adieu  to  the  coast  of  Barbary,  we  were 
all  safely  landed  ©n  the  shores  of  Old  England,  and 
1h€  day  succeeding  I   was  restored   to  the  arms  of 

— r5— 

my  friends  in  Liverpool,  who  joined  with  me  iiv  re- 
luming thanks  to  the  Almighty  for  my  wonderful 

Here  Mrs.  Bradley  concludes  her  affecting  nar- 
rative.—Subsequent  accounts  from  Mogtdore  state 
thai  five  more  of  tke  crew  had  found  their  way  back 
to  that  place  by  the  interposicion  of  Mr.  Willshirc. 

[The  Publisher  here  begs  liberty  for  the  edification 
of  hi«  readers,  to  subjoin  a  concise  narrative  of  Ara- 
bia, of  the  laws,  custoflis  and  habits  of  the  Datives, 
&c.  Ii  is  copied  from  (he  v/oiks  cf  authors  who 
have  themselves  been  held  in  capti-it))  by  the  Arabs, 
ijid  whose  statemeBis  relating  tlicre'.o  may  be  dC' 
perded  on  as  facts.- — 


Arabia  is  in  the  quarter  of  Abia  ;  and,  as  de- 
scribed by  historians  and  geographers,  lies,  in  its 
gre-atest  exfeyit,  betvveen  the  i2ih  and  35th  degree  of 
N.  lat.  and  the  j6th  and  6iat  of  E.  lontj.  From 
its  aitaation  betweea  the  Isthmus  of  Suez,  the  Red 
Sea,  ifce  river  Euphrates,  the  Persian  Gu'ph.  the 
Bay  of  Ormus  the  Slreights  of  Babel-Mandcl, 
and  the  Indian  ocean,  it  may  be  looked  upon  as 
a  peninsula,  and  that  one  of  the  largest  in  the 
woild.  Its  first  division,  as  we  find  by  sciipture, 
was  into  Arabah  and  Kedem  :  Ptolemy  dirided 
ii  into  three  parts— Sioney  Arabia,  Desert  Aubia, 
aftid  Happy  Arabia. 

As  a    great   part   of  this  country  lies  under  the 

t9>rid  zent)  and  the  tropic  ol  Cancer  pa  sses  over 
Happy  Arabia;  the  air  is  excessively  dry  and  hot* 
A  great  part  of  it  is  a  lenesome  desert  difersified 
only  with  plaint  covered  wiih  sand,  and  moun- 
tains of  naked  rocks  and  precipices ;  nor  ever. 
Unless  sonnetimes  at  the  equinoxes,  refreshed  Vfiih 
rain.  The  sands  of  the  deserts,  when  agitated  by 
the  vyinds,  roll  like  the  troubled  ocean,  and  some' 
times  form  huge  mountains,  by  which  whole  Ca- 
talans have  been  buried  or  lost.  Wells  and  foun- 
tains are  exceedingly  rare.  Those  vast  plains  of 
fand  are,  however,  interspersed  here  and  there 
T»iih  fruitful  spots,  rebeaiblieg  so  many  islands  in 
the  midst  of  the  ocean  :  these  being  rendered  ck- 
Ircnicly  delightful  by  their  verdure,  and  the  more 
so  by  the  neighborhood  of  those  frightful  deserts, 
the  Arabs  encamp  upon  them ;  and  having  con^ 
sumed  every  thing  they  find  upon  one,  remove  to 
another.  The  southern  part  of  Arabia  is  blest 
with  a  fertile  soil,  which  has  acquired  it  the  title  of 
Happy :  there  are  producsd  tiie  valuable  gums, 
which  are  carried  to  all  parts  of  the  world  ;  rich 
spices  and  fruits,  and  corn  and  wine. 

In  Arabia  stands  Mount  Sinai,  memorable  as 
the  place  where  the  law  was  given  to  the  Israelites: 
^t  the  foot  of  it  is  a  beautiful  plain,  nearly  nine 
Zpiles  in  length,  and  above  three  in  breadth,  ou 
tvhich  the  Israelites  eacamped.  From  Mount  Sinai 
n»ay  be  seen  Mount  Hareb,  where   Moses  keyt  il\t 

fiocks  of  Jethro,  his  father-in-law,  when  he  saw  tha 
burning  bush. 

The  Arabs  are  distinguis!ied  by  historians,  as  that 
remarkable  people,  of  whcin  k  was  foretold,  that 
tbey  should  be  invincible — '*  have  their  hands  a* 
gainst  every  man,  and  every  man's  hands  against 
them."  They  have  inhabited  the  couatry  that  they 
at  present  possess,  almost  from  the  deloge,  without 
intermixing  with  other  nations.  In  the  early  ages^ 
tlie  Ishmaelites  were  one  of  the  most  considerable 
tribes  in  that  country:  andKimshi,  an  oriental  his^ 
lorian,  insinuates,  that  they  were  originally  the 
children  of  Hagar,  by  an  Arab,  after  she  had  left 

According  to  the  oriental  historians,  the  Arabs  are 
^  be  divided  into  two  elasses,  viz  the  old  lost  Af 
rftbs»  and  the  present.  Coneerning  the  former  there 
are  some  traditions,  too  obscure  to  b«  related  here* 

The  present  Arabs,  according  to  their  own  histo* 
riansi  are  sprung:  from  Kahtan,  the  sanne  with  Jok- 
tan,  the  son  of  Eber ;  and  Adnan,  descended  in  e 
direct  line  from  Ishmael  the  son  of  Alwaham.  The 
former  of  these  they  call  the  genuine  ©r  pure  Ar^bs 
and  ihe  latter,  the  naturalized  or  insitilious  Arabs. 

Joktan,  the  son  of  Eber,  had  thirteen  sons,  wh© 
sttme  lime  after  the  confusion  of  languages  settleil 
Iq  Arabia,  extending  themselves  from  Mesha  to  Sc- 
phar,  a  'oountainous  place  in  the  south  e^^stern  pari 
of  that,  peninsula.  According  ia  the  Arabian  hi.sto» 
ri^ns,  he  had  3^i  so»iy  all  of  whom  left  Arabia,  and 

went  into  India,  except  two,  viz.  Yarab  and  Jcrham-j.. 
the  former  of  whom,  they  say,  gave  the  came  both 
to  ih&ir  country  and  language.  Sshmael  and  his 
mother  Hagar  having  been  dismissed  by  Abraham, 
entered  into  the  wilderness  of  Pai-an,  as  related  in 
the  book  of  Genesis.  The  sacred  historian  informs 
lis,  that  during  his  residerce  in  the  wilderness,  he 
mr.rried  an  Egyptia?i  ;  and  the  Aiabian  writers  £ay„ 
that  he  al?:o  took  to  wife  the  daughter  of  Modad, 
king  of  Hcjsz,  lineally  descended  fiom  Joiham  the 
founder  of  that  king^dom-  By  the  E^^yptian  he  was. 
probably  the  father  of  the  Scenite  or  Wild  Arabs  ; 
ard  havtng'  allied  himself  to  the  Jorhamites,  he  is 
considered  by  the  Arabians  as  the  father  of  ihe 
greatest  partofibeir  nation. 

B.ut  a  particular  hibtory  of  the  Arabs  is  asiJe  frcfnt 
the  purpose  of  this  appendix  Tfe  propagation  cf 
a  new  religiou,  antJ  the  founding  of  a  vast  empire, 
by  their  countryman  Mahomet,  arc  subjects,  wilh 
which  every  one  is  arquaimed.  Their  national  cha- 
racter, which  may  apply  to  the  nation  at  large,  will 
undoubtedly  be  trisly  tlrawn  for  the.  wretched  inhab.- 
itants  of  a  barren  coasi,  seperated  from  society,  and 
living  wholly  under  the  wants  of  poverty,  and  the 
influence  cf  evil  passioBs : — *'  On  the  seacoast  (says 
Guthne)  they  are  mere  pirates,  and  make  prize  of 
every  vessel  they  can  master,  of  whatever  Dalion." 

The  perpetual  independence  of  the  Arabs  "  has 
been  the  theme  ©f  praise  (says  Mr.  Gibbon)  among 
strangers  and  Raiive&i     The  kiwgdf>m  of  Yemen^,  it  is 

— r9  - 

trae,   has  been  successively  subdued  by   the  Abys- 
5ymans,  the  Persians,  the  sultans  «f  Egypt,   aad  the 
Turks ;  the  holy  cities  of  Mecca  and  Medina  have 
repeatedly  bowed  under  a  Scylhian  tyrant  ;  and  the 
Rc-man  province  of  Arabia   embraced    the  peculiar 
wilderness  in  which  Ishn^ael  and  his  sons  must  have 
pitched  their  tents  in  the  face  of  their  brethren.    Yet 
these  exceptions  are   temporary    or  local  ;  the  budy 
of   the  nation    has  escaped    the  yoke  of  the   m»st 
powerful  monarchies  :  the    arms    of    Stsostris  and 
Cyrus,  of  Pompcy  and  Trajan,  could  never  aciiieve 
the    conquest  of  Arabia  :  the   present  Sovereign  oi 
the  Turks  may  exercise  a  shadow    of  jurisdiction  : 
but  his  pride  is  reduced  to  solicit  the  fiiendship    of 
a  people,  whom  it   is   dangerous    to    provoke,   and 
fruitless   to  attack.     The    obvious   causes  of   their 
freedom  are  inscribed  on  the  character  and  «ountry 
©f  the    Arabs.     Many   ages  before    Mahomet,  their 
intrepid  valour  had  been  severely  feii  by  their  neigh.- 
bours  in  offensive  war.     Tlie  patient  and  active  vir- 
tues of  a  soWier  are  insensibly   nursed  in  the  habits 
and  discipline  of   a    pastoral  life.     The  oare  of  the 
sheep  and   camels   is   abandoned  to   the  women  ol 
the  tribe  ;  but   the  martial  youth  under  the   banner 
of  the  Emir,   is  ever  on  horseback,   an^  in  the  field 
to  practise  the  exercise  of  the  bow,  the  javelin,  and 
the  scymetcr.     Th«  long  memory  of  their  indepen- 
dence is  the  firmesi;^  pledge  of  its  perpetuity  ;   and 
succeeding  generalions  are  aj)im..ied  to  pro\€  their 
descetit,  and  to  maiiiiain   their  inheritance.     Theif 

^meatU  ^euds  are  suspended  on  the  approach  ci^ 
?K)mmon  enemy  ;  and  in  tbt  jr  bbi  hostiiuies  against 
the  TurkS;  the  caravan  ol  Mecta  was  attacked  and 
pillaged  by  fourscore  thou  sand  of  the  confede/ates. 
Wh?n  ^hey  ativarjce  lo  battle,  the  hope  of  victory  is 
in  the  f.'Oht ;  and  in  the  rear,  the  asburance  of  a  re- 
treat. Tiieir  horses  and  camels,  who  in  eight  or 
ten  days  cdu  pel  form  a  march  of  four  tr  five  hun- 
dred miies,  disappear  befoie  the  conqueror  ;  the 
secret  v/aters  of  the  desert  elude  his  search  ;  and 
bis  victorious  trtops  are  consumed  with  thiist^ 
hunger  and  futigue,  in  the  pursuit  of  an  invisible  foe^ 
T7ho  scorns  his  eiforls,  and  safely  reposes  in  tfee 
heart  of  the  burnij|;  solitud©. 

"  The  slaves  of  domestic  tyranny  may  vainly  eK- 
Tiltin  their  national  independence:  but  the  Arab  is 
personally  free  ;  and  he  enjoys  in  serae  degree,  ths 
benefits  ef  society,  without  forfeiting  the  prei'oga» 
tive»  of  nature.  In  every  tribe,  supei-sliiion  or  grat- 
itude, or  fortune,  has  exalted  a  particular  family  a- 
fcoTC  the  heads  of  their  equals.  The  dignities  of 
Shaik  and  £mir  invariably  descend  in  this  chosen 
lace  I  b«t  the,  «rder  of  succession  is  loose  an4  |»re« 
darious  ;  and  the  most  worthy  or  aged  of  the  oot>le 
Jtinsmcn  are  preferred  to  the  simple  theugh  import* 
ant  office  of  eomposing  disputes  by  their  advice,  and 
guiding  vaiour  by  their  example.  The  monaentar^ 
junction  of  several  tribes  produces  an  army ;  their 
more  lasting  union  constitutes  a  nation  ;  aiid  the  Sb- 
l^reme  Chid,  the  Ewjir  ol  Emirs,  whose  bafiBer  rs 

—  31  — 

displayed  at  their  head,  may  deserve,  in  the  eves  o/ 
siraugers,  the  honors  of  ihc  kingly  name.  Ifihc 
Arabian  princes  abuse  their  power,  tUey  are  quickly 
punished  by  tkc  desertion  of  their  subjects,  who 
had  been  accustomed  to  a  mild  and  parental  juris- 
diction. Their  spirit  is  free,  their  steps  are  uncon- 
-fined,  the  desert  is  open,  and  the  tribes  and  families 
are  held  together  by  a  mutual  and  voluntary  com- 

**  In  the  study  of  nations  and  m«n,  we  may  ob- 
serye  the  causes  that  render  them  hostile  ov  Iriendly 
to  each  other — that  tend  to  narrow  or  enlarge,  to 
mollify  or  exasperate,  the  bocial  character.  The 
separatiou  tf  the  Arabs  from  the  rest  of  mankind 
has  accustomed  them  to  confound  the  idea  of  stran- 
ger aqd  enemy  ;  af  d  the  poverty  of  the  land  has  in- 
troduced a  maxim  of  jurihprudence,  which  they  be- 
lieve and  piaciise  to  the  present  hour  :  they  pre- 
tend, that  in  the  division  of  the  earth  the  rich  and 
fertile  tliir.aies  were  assigned  to  the  other  fcranches 
of  the  human  family:  ai;d  that  the  posieiity  of  the 
outlaw  Ishmael  might  recover,  by  fraud  or  force,  the 
portion  of  inheritance  of  which  he  had  been  unjustly 
deprived.  According  to  the  remark  of  Pliny,  the 
Arabian  tribes  are  equally  addicted  to  theft  a.nd 
merchandize  j  the  carcivans  that  traverse  the  dt- 
seitsre  ransomed  or  pillc.ged  ;  aed  their  neighbors, 
since  the  lemotest  times  of  Job  and  Sesostiis,  have 
been  the  victims  of  their  rapacious  spirit.  It  a  Ce- 
doween  diicovers  from  afar  a  solitary  liavellerj  he 

pieJes  furioiisly  against  him-    crying,    with  a  loud 
voice,  *»  Undress  ibf^elf  thy  aunt  (my  wife)  is  with* 
out  a   garment.'*     A  ready  submission    entilks  him 
to  mercy  ;  resistance    will    provoke   the  aggressor, 
and  his  own  blood  must  expiate  the  blood  which    he 
presumes  to  shed  in  legitimate  defence.      A  single 
robber,  or  a  few  associates,   are    branded  with   their 
genuine    name  ;  but   the   exploitt   of   a   numerous 
band  assume  the   character  of  lawful  and  honorable 
war.     The   temper  of  a  people,  thus  armed  against 
mankind,  was  doubly  inflamed   by  the  domestic  li- 
cence ot  rapine,   murdtr,  and  revenge.     In  the  con- 
stitution of  Europe,  the   right  of  peace  and  war   is 
now  confined  to  a  small,   and    the  actual  exercise 
to  a  much    smaller    list  of  respectable  potentates  ; 
but  each    Arab,  with  impunity    and   renown,  might 
point  his  javelin  against  the  life   of  his  countryman, 
The  union  of  the  nation  consisted  only  in  a  vague  re- 
semblance 01  language  and  manners  ;  and   ii>  each 
Gomraunity   the   jurisdiction  of  the   magistrate   was 
mute  and  impatient.    Of  the  time  of  ignoranc*  which 
preceded    Mahomet,   i700  battles  are  recorded  by 
tradition  ;  hostility  was  embittered  with  the  rancour 
of  civil  faciicn  ;  and  the  recital,  in    proae   or  verse, 
of  an  obsolete  feud,  was  sufficient    to    rekind:e  the 
same  passions  among   the    descendants    of  hostile 
tribes.     In  private  life,  every  man,   at   least    every 
family,  was  the  judge  and  avenger  of  its  own  cause. 
The  nice  sensibility  of  honor,  which  weighs   the   in- 
.-^ult  rather  than  the  injury,  sheds  its  deadly  venom  en 

iho  qu arrets  of  the  Arabs  :  the  honor  of  their  wo- 
men, and  of  their  btards,  is  most  easily  wounded  : 
9i\  indecent  expression,  a  contemptuous  word,  can 
he  expiated  only  by  the  biood  ©f  the  offender  ;  and 
such  IS  their  patient  inveteracy,  that  they  expect, 
whole  months  and  years  the  opportunity  cf  revenge. 
A  fine  or  compensation  for  murder  is  familiar  to  the 
barbarians  cf  every  age  :  but  in  Arabia  tke  kins- 
men of  the  dead  are  at  liberty  to  accept  the  atone- 
ment, or  to  exercise  with  their  own  hands  the  law  of 
retaliation.  The  refined  malice  of  the  Arab  relus- 
es  even  the  head  of  the  murderer,  substitutes  an  in- 
nocent to  ihe  guilty  person,  and  transfers  the  pen- 
ally vven  to  the  best  and  most  ccnsiderable  of  the 
race  by  whom  they  have  been  injured.  If  he  falls 
by  their  hands,  they  are  exposed  in  their  turn  to 
the  danger  of  reprisals  ;  the  interest  and  principal  of 
ihe  \)!oody  debt  are  accumulated  ;  the  individuals  of 
either  family  lead  a  life  of  maiiee  and  suspicion  ; 
and  fifiy  years  may  sometimes  elapse,  before  the 
teirible  aec<;unt  of  vengeance  be  finally  eeilled. 
This  sanguinary  spirit,  ignorant  of  pity  or  forgive- 
ness, has  been  moderated  however,  by  the  maxims 
of  honor,  which  require  in  every  private  encounter 
some  equality  of  age  and  strength,  of  numberi  and 

"  But  the  spirit  of  rapine  and  revenge  was  at- 
tempered  by  the  mildest  influence  of  tradt  and  U- 
israture.  Tne  solitaf-y  peninsula  is  encompassed  by 
vWc  iroit  civilized  nations  of  the  ancient  world  j  the 

stlerchant  is  the  friend  of  mankind  ;  aod  the  aanual 
caravens  iwtported  the  first  seeds  of  kn^wledeje  and 
politeness  into  the  cities,  and  even  th«  camps  of  the 
desert.  The  arts  of  grammar,  of  metre,  and  of  rhe- 
toric, were  unknown  t©  the  free-born  eloquence  of 
the  Arabians;  but  their  penetration  was  sharp,  their 
fancy  luxuiiant,  their  wit  strong  and  sententious,  and 
Ihrir  more  elaborate  compositions  were  addrcs. 
scd  with  energy  and  effect  on  the  minds  of  their  hear- 
ers. The  genius  and  merit  of  a  rising  poet  were 
celebrated  by  the  applause  of  his  own  and  the  kin- 
dred tribes.  The  Arabian  poets  were  the  historians 
and  moralists  oi  the  age  ;  and  if  they  sympathised 
with  the  prejudices,  they  in?«pircd  and  crowned  the 
virtues  of  their  countrymen.  The  indissoluble  u- 
nion  of  generosity  and  valor  was  the  darling  theme 
of  their  song  ;  and  when  they  poirted  their  keenest 
satire  agains*  a  despicable  race,  they  affirmed,  in  the 
bitterness  of  reproach,  that  the  men  knew  net  how  to 
give,  nor  the  women  to  deny.  The  same  hospitali- 
ty which  was  practised  by  Abraham,  and  celebrated 
hy  Komer,  is  still  renewed  in  the  camps  of  the  A- 
rabs  i  thf  ferocious  Bedoweens,  the  terror  of  the 
desert,  embrace,  without  enqwiry  and  hesitation,  the 
stranger  who  dares  to  confide  in  their  honor,  and  to 
enter  their  tent;  his  treatment  is  kind  and  rctpeciful ; 
he  shares  the  weahh  or  the  powers  of  his  host  ;  andj 
after  a  needful  repose,  he  is  dismissed  on  his  way, 
"mxh  thanksj  with  bletsings,  and  perhap?'  with  gifts.*' 

The  rich  Arabs  have  one,  two,  or  three  slavea, 
male  and  female  j  ihese  arc  allowed  to  sleep  on  the 
same  mat  with  their  masters  and  mistresses,  and  are 
tfeated  in  all  respects  like  the  children  of  the  family 
in  regard  lo  apparel,  &c. — they  are  not,  however, 
permitted  to  marry  or  cohabit  with  the  Arab  women, 
under  pain  of  death,  and  are  obliged  to  take  care  of 
the  camels  and  follow  them,  and  to  do  other  drudg- 
ery, such  as  getting  fuel,  &€.  but  thoy  will  not  obey 
the  women,  and  raiie  their  voices  higher  than  their 
master  or  any  of  his  cfeiidreti  in  a  dispute^  and  cor- 
sequtntly  are  considered  smart  fellows.  They  mar- 
ry among  their  own  colour  while  they  are  staves 
with  the  consent  of  their  masters,  but  the  children 
remain  slaves.  After  a  slave  has  served  his  master 
faithfully  far  a  long  time,  or  has  done  him  some  es- 
semial  service,  he  is  made  tree  :  he  th^n  enters  into 
all  the  privileges  that  the  free  Arabs  enjoy,  and  can 
marry  into  any  of  their  families,  which  he  or  she 
never  fails  to  do,  and  thus  become  ideniifitd  with  the 
families  of  the  tribe  in  which  they  were  slaves,  and 
may  ri»e  lo  the  very  bead  of  it.  The  negroes  are 
f^eneraJly  active  and  brave,  are  seldom  pmished 
with  stripes,  and  those  who  drive  the  camels  do  not 
jscruple  to  milk  them  when  they  are  (birsly,  but  take 
care  not  to  be  discovered  :  they  are  ext^  emely  cun- 
liing,  and  will  steal  any  thing  they  caD  gel  at  to  eat 
or  drink  fr«m  their  masters,  er  indted  any  one  else. 
If  they  are  caught  in  the  act  of  stealing,  they  are 
emly  ihieat»necl,  and  promised  a  flogging  tiie  next 

iirne.     The  father  of  the  family  is  its  absolute  chief 
in  all   respects,  though   he   seldom  ii^flicts  punish- 
ment:  his   wives  and   daughters  are  considered  as 
inerc  slaves,  subject  to  his  will  or  caprice  ;  yet  they 
take  every  eppoitumty  to  deceive  or  steal  from  hina  : 
he  deals  out  the  milk  to  each  wiih  his  own  hand,  nor 
iare    any    one   toiich  it  uniil  it  is  thus  divided  :  he 
always  assists   in  milking  the  camels,  then  puts  the 
xniik  into  a  large  v/odden  bowK  which  has  probably 
Wen  in  the  family  for  ages  :    some  of  the  largest 
Kowls  will  contain  five  gallons;  they  are  frequently 
split  in  evevy  direction,  and  the  s{»lit  parts  are  fast- 
ened together  with  small  iron  plates,  with   a  rivet  at 
each  end,  made  of  the  same  metal.     All  the  milk  is 
thrown  into  the  great  bowl ;  then,  if  in  the  old  man's 
opinion,  theie    is  a  sufficient   quantity  for  a  good 
^rink  round,  he  takes  a  small  bowl,  (of  which  sort 
they  generally  have  two  or  three,)  and  washing 
$ind  rubbing  it  out  with  sand,  he  begins  to  distribute 
the  milk,  by  giving|to  each  grown  person  an  equal 
share,  and  to  the  children  in  proportion  te  their  size, 
nieasuring  it  very  exactly,  and  taking  a  proportion- 
ate quantity  to  himself.     If  there  is  any  left,  be  has 
it  put  into  a  skin,  to  serve  for  a  drink  at  nooB  the 
next  day :  if   there  is  not   a  sufficient   quantity  of 
milk  for  a  good  drink  all  round,  the  old  man  fills  it 
,up  with  water  (if  they  have  any)  to  a  certain  mark 
in  the  bowl)  and  then  proceeds   to  serve  it  as  before 

— sr— 

Th^  camels  are  driven  out  early  in  the  morning' 
and  home  about  dark,  when  they  are  made  to  lie 
down  before  the  tent  of  their  owner,  very  near,  with 
their  tails  towards  it  ;  a  doubled  rope  with  a  large 
knot  in  one  end  is  then  put  round  the  knee  joint 
when  the  leg  is  doubled  in,  and  the  knot  being  then 
thrust  throuf^h  ihe  double  part  at  the  other  end,  ef« 
fectually  fastens  the  knee,  bent  as  it  is,  so  that  th« 
camel  cannot  ^ei  up  to  walk  off,  having  but  the  uso 
of  three  of  his  legs.  This  kind  of  feecket  is  ahp 
fixed  on  ihe  knees  of  the  old  camels  that  lead  ihs 
drove  ;  and  the  others  remain  quiet  when  their  lead- 
ers are  fast ;  in  this  manner  they  are  suffered  to  lie 
until  about  midnight,  when  they  have  had  time  to 
cool  and  the  milk  to  collect  in  their  bags — the  becket 
is  then  taken  off,  and  as  soon  as  they  get  up,  the  net 
which  covers  the  bag  lo  prevent  the  young  ones 
from  consuming  the  milk,  is  loosened— tllis  is  fast- 
ened on  by  two  cords,  ihat  go  over  the  back  of  the 
camel,  aid  are  kpoUed  together.  As  each  camel  is 
milkedj  the  ib  carefuily  replaced,  and  she  is  mada 
10  lie  down  in  the  t-ame  p'ace  again  ;  here  they  lie 
until  daylight,  when  all  the  camels  are  made  lo  get 
up  ;  a  liule  milk  is  then  drawn  from  each,  and  the 
young  ones  are  sufftied  to  suck  out  the  remainder} 
vvhen  the  net  is  put  in  iis  place  agaia,  not  to  be  re- 
moved until  the  follow  itjg  midnight.  While  the 
head  uf  the  family  is  busied  milking  the  camels  and 
suckling  the  young  ones,  assisted  by  all  the  malesj 
.the   wife  ai.d  females  are  striking  and  tolUing  up  the 

tent',  selecting  the  camels  to   carry  the  stuffj  anji 
biinging  them  near,  where  they  make  them  lie  down 
and  pack  on  them  the  tent  and    all  the  other  mate- 
rials.    This  being  done,  they  fasten  a  leather  or  skin 
basket,    about  four  feet  wide,  fitted  wiih  a  kind  ci" 
tree,  like  a  saddle  on  the  back  of  one  of  the  lamest 
camels,  in   which  the  women  place  the  old  men  and 
fvumen  that  cannot  walk  and  the  young  children}, and 
frequently  them^iclves,  and  proceed  forward  accord- 
ing to  their  daily  custom.     The  women  take  cars  o^ 
the  stuff   and  the   camels  that  carry  it,   and  of  the 
child  I  en  ;  the  other  camels  are  driven  off  by  slaves, 
if   ihey  have  any,  if  not   by  some  of  the  boys,   and 
kept  where  there  are  some  shrubs  to  be  found,  until 
i.iifljt.     The    old   man,   or  head  of  th^  family,  geiie- 
rally  precedes  the  women  and  stuff,  after   having  de- 
scribed to  lh£m  the  course  they   are  to  steer.     I1& 
sets  off  on  his  camel,  with  his  gun  in  his  hand,  at  a 
full  trot,  and    goes  on  until    he   finds  a  fit  place  in 
which  to  piich  the  tent,   when  he  gives  the  informa- 
tion to  hia  wife,  who  then  proreeds  with  all  possible 
dispatch  to  the    spot,  unloads  her  camels,  and  lets 
them  ge  ;  iheo  she  spreads  her  tent,  puts  all   th,s 
stuff    under  it,  clears   away  the  smuir  stones^  and 
spreads  her  mat,  arranges  her  bowls,  hangs  up  the 
skins  containing  water,  (if   they  have  a.iy,)  on  a  kind 
of  horse  or  frame  that  folds  together,  &c.  &c.    They 
ftari  long  before  sun- rising  in  the  morning,  aud  cal- 
culate to  pitch  their  tents  at  about  four  o'clock  h 
the  aftcrnoo49j  if  they   can  find  a  convenienl  spol#.. 


Cftherwise  a  liltle  sooner  or  later.  Whea  one  fan^iiy 
sets  off,  the  whole  of  that  part  of  the  tribe  dwelling 
near,  travel  on  with  thera.  As  soon  as  the  place  13 
agreed  on,  the  raen  go  out  on  their  camels  with  their 
guns,  different  ways,  to  reconnoitre,  and  see  if  they 
have  enemies  near. 

T-he  Arabsvvho  inhabit  ihc  great  western  desert^ 
arc  in  their  persons  about  five  feet  seven  or  eig!»t 
inches  in  height ;  and  tolerably  well  set  in  their 
frames,  though  lean  ;  their  complf  xion  is  of  a  dark 
olive  ;  they  have  high  cheek  bones  and  aquiline 
noses  rather  prominent :  lank  cheeks,  thin  lips,  and 
rounded  chiss  ;  tkeir  eyes  are  black,  sparkling,  an4 
iiiieliigent ;  they  have  long  black  hair,  coarse,  and 
very  thick  ;  und  the  men  cut  theirs  off  wiih  their 
knives,  to  the  length  of  about  bis  or  eight  inches, 
ar.d  leave  it  sticking  out  in  e-very  direction  from 
iheir  head.  They  ail  wear  loag  bcafds — their  limbs 
are  straight,  and  they  can  endure  hunger,  thirst* 
hardships,  and  laiigues,  probably  better  than  any 
other  people  under  heaven;  their  clothing  in  gen- 
eral is  nothing  more  than  a  piece  of.  coarse  clotK* 
made  of  camel's  hair,  tied  round  their  waists,  hang- 
ij]g  neasly.  down  to  their  knees;  or  a  goat  skin  se 
fastened  on,  as  to  cover  iheir  nakednees  ;  but  some 
tfihe  rich  ooes  wear  a  coveiing  of  iijien  or  cottcu 
cloth  over  their  shoulders  to  their  knees,  hanging 
something  like  a  shift  or  shirt,  without  slecvcsi  and 
souie  have  besides,  a  haick  or  woollen  blanket  about 
iliir  i'^Qi   viidoy  aftd  four    yards.  longj  which  ihoft 


vrap  about  them  ;  but  this  is  the  case  only  with  ike 
rich,  and  their  number  is  very  small.  These  haicks 
and  blue  shirts,  they  get  from  the  empire  of  Moroc- 
co in  exchange  for  camels'  hair  and  rstrich-fealhers  ; 
the  only  commodity  in  which  they  can  trade.  The 
Arab  women  are  short  and  meager  ;  and  their  fea- 
tures much  harder  and  more  ugly  than  those  of  the 
men  :  but  they  have  long  black  hair,  which  they  braid 
and  tuck  up  in  a  bunch  on  their  hcads»  and  fasten  it 
there  by  means  of  thorns.  Tliey  generally  wear 
strings  of  black  beads Tound  their  necks,  and  a  white 
jircular  bone,  of  three  inches  in  diameter,  in  thcie 
hair,  wiih  bands  of  beads  or  oiher  ornaments  around' 
their  wrists  and  ankles.  Their  cheek  bones  ar^ 
high  and  prominent  ;  their  visages  and  lips  are 
thin,  and  the  upper  lip  is  kept  up  by  means  of  the 
two  eye  {eelh.  They  take  great  pains  to  make 
these  teeth  project  forward f  and  turn  up  quite  in 
fiont  of  the  iiiiC  of  their  other  fore-teeth,  which  are 
as  white  and  sound  as  ivory.  Their  eyes  are  rouwd, 
black,  \QYy  expressive,  and  extremely  beautiful, 
particularly  in  the  young  women,  who  are  general- 
ly plump  and  iuscivious-  The  women  wear  a  dress 
of  coarse  canif  Is*  hair  cloih,  which  ihey  manufac- 
ture in  the  same  way  they  make  their  tent  cloth  :  it 
covers  their  shoulders,,  leaving  iheir  arms  and  breasts 
naked  ;  ii  is  sewed  up  on  each  side,  and  falls  down 
nearly  to  their  knees  ;  they  have  a  fold  in  this  like 
a  sack,  next  heir  skin  on  their  shoulders,  in  which 
fhey  carry  their  little  chiiilren  j  and  the  breasts  ottb© 

middle  aged  women  become  so  extremely  long,  lan^ 
and  pendulous,  that  they  have  no  olher  trouble  in 
nursing  the  child  which  is  on  their  backs,  when 
walking  about,  than  to  throw  up  their  breasts  over 
Ae  top  of  their  shoulders,  so  that  the  child  may 
apply  its  lips. 

All   the    Arabs    go    barefoot;   the    children,  both 
male  and  female,  before  they  come  to  the  age  of  pu- 
berty, run  about  entirely  naked,  and  this  exposure  to  , 
*he  sun  is  one  great    cause  of  their  black  colour^ 
'/he  males  are   all  circumcised  at   ihe  age  cf  eight 
years,  not  as  a  religious  rile,  but  because  it   is  i(.  jnd 
necessary  as  a  preventative  of  a  disease    incident  to 
the  climate.     The  men  are  very  quick    active  and 
intelligent— naore    so    taken    collectively    than  any 
other    that     ever    were      kuown     to    inhabit     the 
different  parts    of  the  world  before    visited.     They 
are  the    lords  and  masters  in    their    families*    and 
are  very  severe  and  cruel  to  their  wives,  whom  they 
treat  as  mere  necessary  slaves,  ihey  do  not  allow 
them  even  as  much  liberty  as  they  g'ant  to  their  ne- 
groesj  either  in  speech  or  action  ;  they  are  consider- 
ed by    the  men  as  beings   without  souls,  and  conse- 
quently they  are  not  permitted  to  join  in  their  devo» 
tionsj  but  are  kept  constantly  drudging  at  something 
or  other,   and  are  seldom    allowed  to  speak    when 
men   are  conversing   together.     They  are  very   fil- 
thy in  their  persons,  not  even  cleansing  themselves 
with  sand,  and  are  covered  with  vermin.     Tbc  con- 
tinual harsh  trcatmcnti  and  hard  diudgcry  to  yiWicb 

they  are  subject,  have  wprn  off  that  fine  edge  of  cle, 
licacy,  senhioility.  and  compassion,  so  naiuial  to 
iheir  sex?  and  iransfonnf  d  >htm  unfeeling  and 
unpityiDg  beiLgs,  so  much  so,  tl;ai  xhc'ir  ©onduct  to* 
wards  such  of  thos*  urfortunalc  pv-rsons  as  fall  into 
their  hauds  brutal  in  the  extreme,  and  betray 
the  extinction  of  every  huniar.e  arid  jfene!©us 

The  Arab  is  high  spirited,  brave,  avaricious,  r2» 
7engeful :  and,  strange  as  it  may  appear,  is  at  tlie 
same  lima  hospitable  and  compassionate  ;  he  is 
proud  of  being  able  to  maintain  his  iRdependencCj 
ihougb  on  a  dreary  desert,  and  despises  those  who 
Greso  mean  and  degraded  as  to  subitiij  to  any  gov- 
ernment but  that  of  the  Most  High.  He  struts  a. 
Wut  sole  master  of  what  wealth  he  possesses-  always 
yeady  to  defend  it,  and  believes  himself  the  happiest 
of  men,  and  the  most  learned  also  :  handing  down 
the  tradition  of  his  ancestors,  as  he  is  persuaded,  for 
thousands  of  years.  He  looks  upon  all  othe'r  men  to 
fee  vile,  and  beneath  his  notice,  except  as  merchan- 
dize ;  he  is  content  to  live  oh  the  milk  of  his  cam- 
els, which  he  takes  great  care  to  rear,  and  thaiikft 
l)is  God  daily  for  his  cofitinua)  mercies.  They  con- 
sidered themselves  as  much  above  their  christian 
captives,  both  in  intelUci  and  acquired  knowledg^e,  as 
tlic  preud  and  peni^tred  West  India  planter,  (long 
acGUstomed  to  rule  over  slaves)  fancies  himself  a«> 
bove  the  mcanttst  rcw  ntgro  just  brought  in  chaiits 
from  tbe  coa^  •f  Africa.    Tae^  ocvt^r  correu  their 

'tta!e  children.'but  the  females  are  beat  wiihoni  mer- 
cy. The  men  are  not  cruel  to  prisuueis  than  they 
Cor.sider  them  obstinate,  and  al>7ays  give  them  a 
small  share  of  what  they  themselves  have  tosub^ht 

Marriages  among  Ihcm  are  frequent,  and  are  per- 
formed as  follows:— -when  a  young  man  sees  a  ^iri 
that  pleases  hire,  he  asks  her  of  her  lather.and  she  be* 
'comes  his  wife  without  ceremony.  Polygamy  is  al- 
lowed, but  the  Arabs  of  the  desert  have  but  very 
seldom  more  than  one  wife,  except  the  rich  ones, 
\?ho  have  need  of  servants,  when  they  take  another 
wife,  and  sometimes  a  third. 

They  all  learn  to  read  and  write;  in  every  family 
ordivisiorj  of  a  tribe,  they  have  boards  of  from  one 
foot  square  to  two  feet  long,  and  about  an  inch 
Ihick  by  eighteen  inches  wide  ;  on  these  boards  the 
ohildrcn  iearn  to  write  with  a  piece  of  poirued  reed, 
they  have  the  secret  of  making  ink,  ai.d  ihat  of  a 
very  black  dye  ;  when  a  family  of  wandering  Arabs 
pitch  their  tents,  they  set  apart  a  place  for  a  school^ 
this  they  surround  with  broken  shrubs  in  the  de- 
eert,  to  keep  off*  the  wind— ^M^re  all  the  boys  who 
have  been  circumcised,  ol  from  eight  to  eigtiteeo  or 
twenty  yeai  s  old,  aitend*  and  are  taught  to  read  and 
*j6)  write  verses  from  the  Koran,  whicd  is  kept  in 
manusciipt  by  every  family  on  skins:  they  ■© 
tiieir  ciiaracters  from  right  to  left — arc  very  par- 
ticular in  the  formation  of  them,  and  r-ak»r  tl»cir 
Isnes  Tery  straight  ;    ail   the   ciiUdren   atund  irom 


chcice  or  ainusement. — The  teacher,  it  is  saldi 
never  punishes  a  child,  but  explains  the  meaning 
of  things,  and  amuses  him  by  telling  talas  that  are 
both  entertaining  and  instructive;  he  reads  or  re- 
hearses chapters  from  the  Koran  or  some  other  book; 
for  they  have  a  great  many  poems,  &c  written  also 
on  skins :  when  the  board  is  full  of  writing,  they 
rub  it  off  with  sand,  and,  begin  again.  The 
hoards  on  which  they  write  appear  to  have  lasted 
for  ages;  they  are  sometimes  split  in  many  places,  and 
are  kept  together  by  small  iron  plates  on  each  side, 
iixed  by  iron  rivets  ;  these  plates,  as  well  as  their 
rude  axes,  of  which  each  family  has  one,  are  made 
of  tempered  iron  by  the  smiths,  vyhich  belongs  to 
and  journey  with  the  tribe— they  work  with  great 
dexterity.  They  burn  small  wood  into  charcoal,  and 
any  it  with  them  on  camels  :  their  anvil  is  made  of 
a  piece  of  iron  a  foot  long,  and  pointed  at  the  end— 
this  they  drive  into  the  grownd  to  work  on  ;  the  head 
of  the  anvil  is  abonl  six  inches  over  ;  they  make 
their  fire  in  a  small  hole  dug  in  the  ground  for  that 
purpose,  and  blow  it  up  by  means  of  two  skins  curi- 
ously fixed ;  so  that  while  one  is  filling  with  air, 
they  blow  with  the  other,  standing  between  them— 
^viih  a  hand  placed  on  each,  they  raise  and  depress 
them  at  pleasure.  By  means  ef  a  clumsy  hammer, 
an  anvil,  and  hot  irons  to  bore  v/iih,  they  manage  to 
Sk  the  saddles  for  themselves  to  ride  on,  and  to  make 
knives  end  a  kind  of  needles,  and  small  rough  bladcd 
«xes.    This  f  3rge  is  carried  about  without  the  small 

est  inconvenience,  so  that  the  Arabs  even  of  the 
^csart  are  better  provided  in  this  respect  than  the 
the  Israelites  were  in  the  days  of  Saul  their  King, 
Samuel,  chap.  xiii.  verses  19  to  23^ — "  Now  there 
was  no  smith  in  all  the  land  of  Israel ;  for  the  Phi- 
listines said,  "  Lest  the  Hebrews  make  them  swords 
or  spears."  An  undutiful  child  ©f  civilized  parents 
might  here  learn  a  lesson  of  filial  piety  and  benevo- 
lence from  these  barbarians  ;  the  old  people  always 
received  the  first  drhik  of  milk,  and  a  larger  share 
than  even  the  acting  head  of  the  family  when  they 
\Tere  scanted  in  quantity  ;  whenever  the  family  mov- 
ed forward,  a  camel  was  first  prepared  for  the  old 
rsan,  by  fixing  a  kind  of  basket  on  the  animal's 
back  ;  they  then  put  skins  or  other  soft  thinjjs  into 
■t,  to  make  it  easy,  and  next  lifting  up  the  old  man, 
they  place  him  carefully  in  the  basket,  with  a  child 
or  two  on  each  side,  to  take  care  of  and  steady  him 
during  the  march,  while  he  seems  to  sit  aod  hold  on 
more  from  long  habit  than  from  choice.     As  soon  as 

hey  stopped  lo  pilch  the  tents,  the  old  man  was 
taken  from  his  camel,  and  being  carefully  seated, 
drink  of  water  or  milk  given  him,  for  they  take 
rare  to  sjive  some  f^r  that  particular  purpose.  When 
the  lent  was  pitched,  he  was  carefully  taken  up  and 
;>lacc:l  u^iaVir   it  on  iheir  mat,  where  he  could  g©  t6 



The  Arabian  camel,  called  by  the  ancients  anfl 
by  naluralists,  the  dromedary,  is,  perhaps  the  most 
singular,  and,  at  the  same  time  one  of  the  most 
useful  animals  in  nature  He  is,  when  full  grown, 
from  eight  to  nine  feet  in  height,  and  about  ten  to 
twelve  feet  in  length  from  the  end  of  his  nose  to  the 
root  of  his  tail  ;  his  body  is  small,  compared  with 
ilis  heighth  :  he  resembles  in  shape  that  of  a  goose 
more  than  any  oiher  animal,  being  long  and  slender, 
and  it  seems  to  grow  out  of  the  lower  part  of  his 
body  between  his  fore  legs ;  he  raises  his  head  to 
Ihe  height  ol  his  back,  poking  his  nose  «ut  horizon- 
tally, so  that  his  face  looks  directly  upwards,  and  hi« 
Dose  bone  so  high  as  to  be  on  a  line  with  the  top  of 
the  hunch  en  his  back  ;  his  head  h  small,  his  ears 
aiiort  ;  bis  eyes  are  of  various  colours,  from  a  black 
to  almost  a  white  j  bright,  and  sparkling  with  in- 
stinctive intelligence,  and  placed  on  the  sides  of  hia^ 
l^ead  in  such  a  manner,  that  he  can  see  behind,  and 
On  every  side  at  the  same  lime.  His  lail  is  shorti 
and  hangs  like  that  of  a  cow.  with- a  small  buirJi  ol 
hair  at  the  end ;  his  legs  are  long  and  slender, 
though  their  joinis  are  stout  and  strong  ;  his  feet 
are  divided  something  like  those  of  an  ox  ;  but  he« 
has  no  hoof  except  on  the  extreme  points  of  the 
toes  ;  in  other  pa»ts  they  are  only  covered  with- 
akiu;  and  are  soft  and  yielding^  the  soles  oi  his  feet 

are  not  thicker  than  stout  sole  leather :  be  is  gene- 
TaUjr  of  a  light  ash  color,  but  varying  from  that  to  a 
i^ark  brown,  and  sometimes  a  reddish  brown  :  ma- 
ny of  them  are  also  marked  with  white  spots  or 
stripes  on  their  foreheads,  and  on  ^ifFereat  partsof 
their  bodies  j  the  hair  on  his  body  is  short  and  fiae, 
^ike  the  finest  of  wool,  and  serves  the  Arab  instead 
of  that  ncces&ary  article  with  which  they  make  th»ir 
tent  cloth  and  coarse  covering  ;  it  is  pulled  or  else 
falls  o^  once  a  year  ;  the  hair  about  his  throat  an4 
on  the  hump  is  -eight  or  t»n  inches  in  length,  and 
hangs  down  ;  he  has  a  high  bunch  on  his  backi 
which  rises  from  his  shoulders,  and  comes  to  a  blant 
poiot  at  about  the  centre  of  his  back,  and  tapers  off 
to  his  hips ;  this  bunch  is  from  one  to  two  feet  high 
abeve  the  back  bone,  and  not  attached  to  it  nor  to  the 
frame  of  the  camel,  S9  that  in  skinning  him  the  A- 
rabs  tak»  off  the  bunch  with  it  which  is  larger  or 
smaller,  as  the  camel  is  fat  or  lean.  He  v/ho  rides 
on  a  camel  without  a  saddle  (which  saddle  is  pecu- 
liarly constructed  so  as  not  to  touch  the  bnnch)  ia 
forced  to  get  on  behind  it,  where  the  breadth  of  the 
body  keeps  the  rider's  legs  extended  very  wide, 
while  he  is  obliged  to  keep  himself  from  slipping  off 
over  the  beast's  tail,  by  cienching  both  hands  into 
the  long  hair  that  covers  the  bunch. 

The  camel  is   a  very    domestic    animal  ;  he  lias 

down   on    his  belly  at  the  command  •f  his  mastci^ 

folding  his  le^s  under  him  something  like    a  sheep  ; 

liitic   he  r»^?ij;:i*j?  torect.i\c  his  rider  oi  his  burcl^H 


>^98  — 

^vhen  he  rises  at  a  word,  and  proceeds  in  the  way 
he  is  driven  or  directed,  with  the  utmost  docility  and 
cheerfulness,  while  his  master  encourages    hina  by 
singing.     The  Arabs   use  neither  bridle   nor  ha'.'er, 
but   guide  and  manage    the   camel  (whose  head  is 
quite  at   liberty)    by  mc^ns  of  a   stick,  assisted  by 
word*  and  of  ihe  tongue  ;  havino^  one  sound  to  urge 
him  on  faster ;  one  to  make  him    go  slower  ;  and  a 
third,  which  is  a  kind  of  cluck  with  the   tongue,  to 
make  him  stop.     He  chews  his  cud  like  an  ox,  and 
has  no  fore  teeth  in  his  upper  jaw  :  but  his  lips  are 
long  and  rough,  so  that  he  nips  olTlhe  rugged  shrubs 
without  difficulty,   on  which  he  is    obliged   to  feed. 
The  camel  seems  to  have  been  formed  by  nature  to 
live  on  deserts  ;  he  is  patient,  fleet,  strong  and  hardy  ■» 
can  endure  hunger  and  thirst  better  than    any  other 
animal,  can  travel  through  deep  and  dead  sands  with 
great  ease,   and  over  ihe   flinty    parts  of  the  desert 
without  difficulty,  though  it  is  h^rd  for  him  to  go  up 
or  down  steep  hills  and  mountams,  and  to  travel  on 
'Riuddy  roads,  as   he  slips  about  and  strains  himself; 
^ut  he    is    sure  footed,   and    walks  firmly  on  a  hard 
Jdry  surface,  or  on    sand.  We  have  never   made   the 
natural  history  of  animals  our  study,  and  it  cannot  be 
expected  that  we  should  be  acquainted  with  the  par- 
ticular formation  of  their'  interior  parts;  but  we  will, 
\enture  to  say  a  few  words  in   regard   to  the  camel 
*  without  fear  of  contradiction  from  any  one  who  shall 
see   and   examine    for   himself,   having   assisted    in 
butchering  several  ©i  these  animal*. 

The  camel  is  described  by  naturalists  as  having, 
besides  the  four  stomachs  common  to  ruminating  an- 
imals, a  fifth  bag,  exclusively  a  reservoir  for  neater 
where  it  remains  without  coi ruptinij  or  mixing  with 
the  other  aliments;  this  is  a  mistake  — for  the  bag 
that  holds  the  water  contains  also  the  chewed  her- 
bage, and  is  in  the  camel  what  a  paunch  is  in  an  ox. 
Into  this  bag  all  the  rough  chewed  herbage  enters, 
where  it  is  Roftened  by  the  waier,  throvvn  again  into 
the  mouth,  chewed  over,  and  passes  off  by  another 
canal,  and  the  foeees  are  so  dry,  that  the  day  after 
they  are  voided,  the  Arabs  strike  tire  on  them  in- 
stead of  touchwood  or  punk. 

The  camel  is  considered  by  the  Arab  as  a  sacred 
animal  ;  with  him  he  can  transport  a  load  of  mer- 
chandize of  several  hundred  weight  wiih  certain- 
ty and  celerity  through  deserts  utterly  impassable 
with  any  other  animal.  On  hiin  the  wandering 
Arab  can  flee  wiih  his  family  fr@m*any  enemy  across 
the  trackless  wasie  one  hundred  miles  •?  more  in  a 
..iDgle  day  if  he  wishes,  and  out  of  the  reach  of  his 
pursuers,  for  the  desert  like  the  ocean  neither  re- 
tains nor  discloses  any  trace  of  the  traveller.  Its 
milk  is  both  food  and  drink  for  the  whole  family, 
and  when  they  have  a  sufficiency  of  that  article,  they 
ar&  contented,  and  desire  nothing  more:  with  his 
camel  the  Arab  is  perfectly  independent,  and  can 
bid  defiance  to  all  the  forces  that  uncivilized  foes  can 
send  against  him  ;  with  him  they  collect  in  siroBjr 
bands,  all  well  armed)  and   fail  upon  the  caravans. 

*— 1©0— 

alaying  without  mercy  all  they  ean  •verpoweF,  and 
divide  their  spoil :  should  they  meet  a  repulse,  they 
can  flee  and  soen  be  out  of  sight ;  they  also  attack  the 
settlements  and  small  walled  towns  in  the  cultivated 
country  near  the  desert,  and  if  strong  enough,  des- 
troy all  the  goods  of  the  slain  they  carry  away  on 
their  camels,  and  return  to  the  desert,  where  no 
force  can  pursue  them  without  meeting  with  certain 

The  camel's  motions  are  extremely  heavy  and 
jolting  ;  his  legs  being  long,  he  steps  a  great  dis- 
tance, and  though  he  appears  to  go  slowly  when  on 
a  walk,  yet  he  proceeds  at  about  the  rate  of  four 
miles  an  hour,  and  it  is  difficult  for  a  man  to  keep 
pace  vviih  him  without  running.  When  the  camel 
t.ots,  he  goes  vei^  fast  ;  the  small  trot  being  about 
six,  and  the  great  ones  about  eight  or  nine  miles  an 
hour — this  they  can  do  with  great  ease  with  light 
J»ads  for  a  whole  day  together,  and  will  replenish 
Iheir  stomachs  at  night  with  the  leaves  and  twigs 
of  the  sullen  thorn  bufh,  tl  at  is  barely  permitted 
by  nature  to  vegetate  in  the  most  dreary  and  deso* 
late  of  all  regions.  The  fiesh  of  the  camel  is  good 
for  food  ;  and  that  of  the  young  ones  is  esteemed 
preferable  to  that  of  the  ox.  They  bring  forth  a 
single  young  one  at  a  time,  and  generally  one© 
jn  about  two  years,  their  time  of  gestation  being  a» 
bout  one  year.  When  the  camel  is  in  a  heat,  he  is 
extremely  vicious,  so  that  none  dare  ceme  neaf 

The  Arabs  arc  in  general  Mahometans  ;  some  of 
them  are  pagans.  This  country  was  the  birth  place 
of  Mahomet.  He  taught  the  necessity  of  beliefing 
in  God,  the  existence  of  angels,  the  resurrection  and 
future  judgment,  and  the  doctrine  of  absolute  de- 
crees. The  duties  which  he  enjoined  were  prayer, 
iive  times  in  a  day,  fasting,  charity,  and  a  pilgrimage 
to  M«cca.  Their  religion  forbids  the  use  of  images, 
though  anciently  they  were  idolaters,  and  the  same 
rites,  which  are  now  practised  by  Mahometans, 
were  invented  and  practised  ky  idolaters.  From 
Japan  to  Peru,  all  round  the  glebe,  sacrifices  have 
prevailed ;  the  votary  has  expressed  his  gratitude 
©r  his  fear  by  destroying,  or  consuming  in  honor  of 
the  gods;  the  most  precious  of  their  gifis.  The  life 
of  man  is  the  most  precious  oblation  to  deprecate 
any  calamity  ;  therefore  the  altars  of  Phoenicia  and 
Egypt,  of  Rome  and  Carthage,  have  been  pollated 
with  human  gore.  The  Arabs,  like  the  Jews,  abstain 
from  swine's  flesh,  and  circumcise  their  children. 

The  B  miaos  are  a  sect  tolerated  here.  They  pro- 
fess to  love  every  thing,  which  breathes,  to  assist 
every  thing  which  is  in  pain,  to  abhor  the  spilling  of 
b!ood,  and  to  abstain  tiom  food,  that  has  Ci Joyed  life. 
1  he  Europeans  trust  ihem  to  do  all  their  business 
with  the  Arabs,  and  they  are  always  fous  d  honest. 
The  Wahabees,  a  new  sect,  who  are  mi.iiary  con^ 
queroTs,  have  risen  here,  changh:g  their  religioni 
and    foi bidding   pilgrimage    to  Mecca,  so  that  the 

•-102 — 
mighty  fabric  of  Mahometanism  is  rapidly  passihg- 

About  twelve  milli®n  five  hunrlred  and  fifty  theu- 
sand  poijads  of  coffee  are  annually  exported.  The 
Europeans  take  1,500,000  ;  ihe  Persians  3,500,000  » 
the  fleet  from  Suez  takes  6  500>000  ;  Hindcstan,  the 
Maldives,  and  the  Arabian  colonies  in  Africa,  take 
500,000  pounds  ;  the  caravans  IjOOO.OOO*  The  ave- 
rage  price  of  the  cofiee  is  about  ten  cents  and  four 
mills  per  pound  ;  the  dearest  is  about  12  cents,  la 
Arabia  none  but  ♦he  rich  citizens  taste  of  coffee  j  the 
common  people  are  content  with  the  shell  and  husk. 
These  have  the  taste  of  coffee  without  the  strength 
or  bitterness. 

Arabia  carries  on  a  profitable  traffic  with  Aby- 
slnia,  and  other  parts  of  Africa,  with  Europe,  and 
the  East  Indies, 

Mecca  is  the  principal  city  and  was  supported 
by  the  resort  of  pilgrims,  70,000  of  whorn  visited  that 
place  every  year.  But  the  recent  conquests  of  the 
Wahabee  have  put  a  step  t©  this  custom,  which  was 
the  life-blood  ot  Mahometanism  aud  of  Arabian  com- 
merce. The  buildings  are  mean.  It  is  34  miles 
from  Judda,  lat.  31,  45  east.  It  i«  an  inland  town, 
Surrounded  by  hills,  a  day's  journey  from  the  Red 
sea.  It  is  the  huly  city  of  Mahometans  ;  no  chris- 
tian is  allowed  to  enter  it.  The  temple  of  Mecca 
has  42  doors,  and  is  said  to  be  nearly  67©  yards  iiv 
length,  and  570  in  breadth.  In  the  centre  is  a  paved 
court>  en  all  sides  of  which  are  cells  for  those  who 

—  163—' 

oons«crate  themselves  to  a  life  of  devotion.  The 
door  is  covered  with  plates  of  silver  ;  before  it  is  a 
curtain,  thick  with  gold  embroidery.  This  sacred 
Caaba  is  the  principal  object  of  ihc  pilgrim's  devo- 
tion, and  is  open  but  two  days  in  sx  weeks  ;  one  for 
the  men,  and  one  for  the  vvonnen.  Its  walls  are  marble, 
hun^  routed  with  silk,  and  lighted  by  four  silver 
lamps.  Twelve  paces  from  the  Caaba,  theypietcnd 
to  show  Abram's  sepulchre.  After  perfotming  their 
devotions,  the  pilgrims  retire  te  a  hill  whcie,  af^er 
various  ceremonies,  they  are  pronounced  hadgies  or 
saints,  and  suppose  heaven  is  bure. 

In  the  Caaba  is  one  relic,  sacred  to  the  Arabs  as 
the  cross  is  to  the  catholics.  It  is  a  black  stone, 
brought  by  GaDiiel  from  heaven  for  theconstruc- 
4ioB  of  this  edifice.  Tnis  stone,  they  say,  was  first 
of  a  clear,  white  colour:  dazzling  the  eyes  ot  peo- 
ple at  the  distance  of  four  days*  jo'Utney,  By  weep, 
ing  so  long  and  so  abundantly  fur  the  sins  of  man- 
kind, it  became  opaqwc,  and  finally  black.  This  ten- 
der hearted  stone,  every  Mahon.etan  mubt  kiss  or 
touch  every  time  he  goes  reund  the  Caaba.  Tluy 
5'jppose  the  temple  founded  on  the  stone  upon  v  hich 
Jacob  rested  his  head  at  Bethel,  when  Hying  licta 
the  wrath  of  Esau.  Aden  is  a  seaport  of  Aiabje 
Felix,  on  the  coast  of  the.  Indian  ocean.  It  i  as  a 
good  harbor,  and  was  formerly  a  mart  of  extensive 
commerce,  which  is  now  incoasiderable.  It  is  the- 
capital  of  a  country  to  which  it  gives  name.  Medi- 
na is  a  small,  poor  place,  sui  rounded  by  walls.     In 

—  104-.- 

the  temple  is  the  tomb  of  Mahomet,  surrounded  by 
curtains,  aod  lighted  wiih  lamps. 

Bedow»ens  is  a  modern  name  by  which  the 
wild  A;abs  are  distinguished,  who  inhabit  ihe  de- 
serlfe,  who  live  in  tents,  and  \\.ho  are  perpetually  re- 
moving from  one  place  to  another,  Such  is  the  si- 
tuation in  which  nature  has  placed  these  people— 
ui^der  a  sky  almost  perpetually  inflamed  and  with- 
out clfeuds,  in  the  midst  of  immense  and  boundless 
jylains,  without  houses,  trees,  rivulets,  or  hills — as 
to  make  of  them  a  race  of  men  equally  {singular 
in  their  physical  and  moral  character.  This  singu- 
larity is  so  striking,  that  even  their  neighbors  the 
Syrians  regard  them  as  extraordinary  beings,  espe- 
cially those  tribes  v?hich  dwell  in  the  depths  of  the 
dtbtrt,  and  never  approach  the  towns.  When  in 
the  time  of  Shaik  Daher  some  of  their  horsemen 
«4a me  as  far  as  Acre,  they  excited  the  same  curi- 
Obity  there,  as  a  visit  from  the  savages  of  Americs) 
would  in  Europe.  Every  body  viewed  with  sur 
prifcethfjse  men,  who  were  more  diminutive,  meagre 
and  swarthy,  than  any  of  the  known  Bedoweensj 
their  withered  legs  v.  ere  only  composed  of  tendons 
ard  had  no  calves  ;  their  bellies  seemed  to  cling  tt 
#ieir  backs;  and  their  hair  was  -frizzled  almost  a* 
much  as  that  of  th;j  Negroes.  They,  on  the  other 
hand,  were  no  less  astonished  at  every  ibing  they 
saw  ;  thry  co>>id  neither  coQceive  hovr  the  houses 
and  ;iijinarets  could  st.'J»d  erect,  nor  how  men  ven- 
tured to  dwell  beneath  vhem,  and  always  in  the  same 

—  105— 

spot;  but,  above  all,  they  were  in  an  ccstncy  or.  be- 
holding   the    sea     nor   coulrl  they  comprehend  what 
that  desert  of  water  could    be.     In   general  the  Be- 
doweens    are  small,   meagre,  and  tawny  ;  more  so, 
however,  in  the  heart  of  the  desert  than  on  the  fron- 
tiers of  cultivated  country  ;  but  they  are  always  of  a 
darker  hue  than  the   neighboring  peasants.      They 
also  differ  a«iong  themselves  in  the  same   camp; 
the  Shaiks,   that  is,  the  rich*  and   tho'r  attendants, 
being  always  taller   and    more    corpulent   than   the 
Arabians  of   the   common    class ;  M.    Volney    has 
seen  some  of  them    above    5   feet    6  inches    high| 
♦  hough  in  general  they  do  not  exeeed  5  feet  2  inch- 
es.    This  diff«rence  is  only  to  be  attributed  to  their 
food,  with  which  the  former  are  supplied  more  abund- 
antly than  the  latter.     The  lower  class  live  in  a  state 
©f  habiiual    wretchedness  and   famine  :  it  is  a  facfj 
that  the  quantity  of  food  usually  consumed  by  the 
greater  part  of  ih«m  does  cot  exceed  six   ounces  a 
day  :  six  or  seven  dates    soaked  in  melted  butter,  a 
little  sweet  milk  or  curds,  serve  a  man  a  whole  day; 
and   he  esteems   himself  happy   when  he  can  add  a 
small  quantity  of  coarse  flour,  or  a  Utile  ball  tf  rice. 
Meat   is   reserved  for    the  greatest   fesiivals ;    and 
they  never  kill  r  kid,  but  for  a  mariiage  or  a  fune- 
ral.    A  few  wealthy  and  generous  Shaiks  alone  can 
kill  young  camels,  and  eat  baked  rice  with  their  vic- 
tuals.    In  times  of  dearth,  tlie    vu'gar,   always    half 
fajTiished.  do  not  disdain  the  most  wretched  kinds  of 
ffiod  ;  and  eai  locusts,    rats,  lizards,  and    serpent^ 

feroiled  &»  briars.  Hence  are  they  such  plunder- 
ers of  the  cultivated  lands,  and  robbers  on  the  high 
roads  ;  hence,  alsa,  their  delicate  constitution,  and 
their  diminutive  and  meagre  bodies,  which  are  ra- 
ther active  than  vigorous. 

The  Bedoweens  have   as    little  industry  as  their 
wants  are  few.     They  have  no  books,  and  are  igno- 
rant of  all    science.     All    their  literature  co».sists  in 
reciting  tales  in  the  nianner  of  the  Arabian  Nights* 
Entertainment.     In  the  evening  they  seat  themselves 
on  the  ground ;  and  there,   ranged   in  a  circle  round 
a  little  fire  of  dung,  their  pipes  in  their  mouths,  and 
their  legs   crossed,  they  sit    a  while  in  silent  medi- 
tation, till  on  a  sudden    one    of  them    breaks  forth 
with,  **  Once  on  a   time" — and  continues   to  recite 
the  adventures  of  some  young  Shaik  and  female  Be* 
doween  ;  he  relates  in   what  manner  the  youth  first 
got  a  secret  glimpse  ©f  his  mistress,  and  how  be  be- 
came secretly  enamored    of  her;  he  fninately   des- 
cribes the  lovely  fair  :  boasts  her  black  eyes,  as  large 
and  soft  as  those  ©f  the    gazelle  ;  her  languid   and 
impaisioned  looks  ;  her  arched  eyebrows,  resembling 
two  bcws  of  ebeny  ;   her  waist,  strait  and  swpple  as 
a  lance;  he  forgets  not  her  steps,    light  as  those  of 
\he  young  filly  ;  nor  her  eye-lashes,  blackened  with 
•  k«hl  :  n©r  her    lips,    painted    blue  ;  nor  her  nails, 
tinged    with  the    golden    colored    henna;  nor   her 
breasts,  resembling    two    pi^megranaies;     nor    her 
words,    sweet  as  honey.      He  j^recounls  the  suffcr- 
ingi  ©f  the  young  lover,  so  wasted  with  desire  and 

passion,  that  his  body  no  longer  yields  any  shadov/. 
At  length,  after  detailing  his  various  attempts  to  see 
his  mistress,  the  obstacles  of  the  parents,  the  inva- 
sions of  the  enemy,  the  captivity  of  the  lovers,  &c. 
he  terminates,  to  the  satisfaction  of  the  audience, 
by  restoring  them  united  and  happy,  to  the  paternal 
tent,  and  by  receiving  the  tribute  paid  to  his  elo- 
quence, in  an  exclamation  of  praise,  equivalent  \o 
Admirably  well  I 

The  Bedoween  is  a  shepherd,\vithout  all  the  inno- 
eence  of  that  character.  The  facility  of  passing  rap- 
idly over  exiensive  tracts  of  country,  renders  him  a 
wanderer.  He  becomes  greedy  from  want,  and  a 
robl^er  from  greediness.  A  plunderer  rather  than  a 
warrior,  he  possesses  no  sanguinary  courage  ;  he  at- 
tacks oiiiy  to  despoil  ;  and  if  he  meets  with  no  re- 
sistance, never  thinks  a  small  booty  is  to  be  put  in 
competition  wiik  his  life.  To  irritate  hina,  you 
must  shed  his  blood  ;  in  which  case  he  is  as  obsti- 
nate in  his  vengeance,  as  he  was  cautious  in  avoid- 
ing danger. 

Notwithstanding:  their  depredatiens  ©n  strangers^ 
among  -hemseives  the  Bedoweens  are  remarkable 
for  a  good  faith,  a  disinterestedness,  a  generosity, 
which  would  do  honor  to  the  most  civilized  people. 
What  is  there  more  noble  than  the  right  of  asylum, 
so  respected  among  all  the  tribes  ;  a  stranger,  nay, 
even  an  enemy,  touches  the  tent  of  the  Bedoween, 
and  from  that  instant  his  person  is  inviolable.  It 
would  be  reckoned  a  disgraceful  meanness,  an  inde- 

Jible  shame,  to  satisfy  even  a  just  vengeance  at  tke 
expense  of  ho£>pitality.  Has  the  Bedoween  consent, 
ed  to  eat  bread  and  salt  with  hh  guest,  nothing  can 
induce  him  to  betray  him.  The  Bedoween,  so  ra- 
pacious without  his  camp,  has  no  sooner  set  his  fott 
within  it,  than  he  becomes  liberal  and  generous; 
•what  little  he  possesses  he  is  ever  ready  to  divide — 
lie  has  even  the  delicacy  not  to  wait  till  he  is  ajked— • 
\?hen  he  takes  his  repast,  he  affects  to  scat  himself 
at  the  door  of  his  tent  in  order  to  invite  the  passen. 
gers  ;  his  generosity  is  so  sincere,  that  he  docs  not 
look  on  it  as  a  merit,  but  merely  as  a  duty,  and  he 
therefore  readily  takes  the  sj^me  liberty  with  others. 
The  unqualified  liberty  enjoyed  by  the  Bedoweens 
extends  even  to  matters  of  religion,  his  true,  that 
on  the  frontiers  of  the  Turks  they  preserve,  from 
policy,  the  appearance  of  Mahometonism  ;  but  so  re- 
laxed is  their  observance  of  its  ceremonies,  and  so 
liltlie  fervor  has  their  devotion,  that  they  arc  gene- 
rally considered  as  infidels,  who  have  neither  law 
cor  prophets.  They  even  make  no  difficulty  in  say- 
ing, that  the  religion  if  Mahorret  was  not  made  for 
them — "  For  (add  they)  how  shall  we  make  ablu- 
tions, who  have  no  water  ?  How  can  we  betiow  aims, 
w*ho  arc  not  rich  ?  Why  should  we  fast  iii  the  R^ra- 
adan,  since  the  whole  year  with  us  is  one  continual 
fast  ?  And  what  ne»  cssity  is  there  for  us  to  make 
the  pilgrimage  to  Mecca;  if  God  be  pre&ent  everf 
where  ? 


A^-NS-— .'    <»t^.